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Study Guide for Final

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

HLTB01 Notes II Chapter 6: Aging of the Internal Organ Systems Cardiovascular System Basic Anatomy and Physiology: - Venous pump flapper valve to keep it flowing one direction, squeezing of veins by walking or other movement Age-Related Changes: - Normal enlargement of the heart mass, slowing of electrical activity, fat tissue around sinoatrial node, interferes with conduction system, thicker and stiff arteries - Bradycardia abnormally slow pulse, only 10% of pacemaker cells remain Disease-Related Processes: - Hypertension optimal 12080, normal 13085, hypertension 14090 or greater - Arteriosclerosis thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls o Atherosclerosis build up of plague inside arterial wall (LDL-bad, HDL-good) o Risk factors: male, family history, smoking, diet, diabetes, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, high levels of homocystine - Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD)- arteries that carry blood to the legs and feet are blocked due to atherosclerosis - Coronary heart disease (CHD) results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart, arteries of women are smaller, protection estrogen o Angina pectoris a common symptom for CHD, demand for blood in heart muscles is greater than supplied, temp pain, impending heart attack, dyspnea (difficultly breathing) coughing or confusion o Myocardial Infarction (MI) heart attack, occurs when artery in the heart is blocked because of a blood clot - Heart Failure when the heart is no longer able to pump blood to meet metabolic needs of the body, cessation of a heartbeat, with death imminent, fluid build up in left ventricle Promoting Optimal Aging: - Changes in diet, not smoking, aerobic exercise, alleviating stress, social support Respiratory System Basic Anatomy and Physiology: - Mast cells OL3089K07085L7,94797,.9L22:308890281L789OL30410103.0 - lung volume(amount of air expired), tidal volume (when a person is resting) - total lung capacity = vital capacity + residual volume Age-Related Changes: - intercostals and diaphragm become weaker and atrophy with age, chest wall stiffer, reduced ability for lungs to expand and contract, changes in collagen and elastin, alveoli become enlarged and flatten, bronchioles collapse, normal decrease in cough reflex, decreased ciliary function Disease-Related Processes - Lung Cancer small cell(grow rapidly, high metastasisspread), non-small cell(slower growing, less likely to metastasize, more common in older adults) - Pneumonia inability to maintain homeostasis, aspiration (inhale food) o Risk factors: crowded housing - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) several diseases of the respiratory tract, two of the most common are chronic bronchitis and emphysema o Chronic Bronchitis cells of respiratory tract are inflamed and secret copious amounts of thickened mucus. A crackling sound can be heard in chest o Emphysema abnormal and permanent deterioration of tissue at the end of the respiratory tract, in smallest bronchiole and alveoli, over time alveoli become less elastic, flattened and unusable. Shortness of breath, excess mucus, hard to exhale - Tuberculosis bacterial infection, nonspecific symptoms, multi-drug treatment
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