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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

HLTB01H3Y: Health, Aging and the Life Cycle Department of Health Studies University of Toronto at Scarborough Summer 2010 Instructor: Anna Walsh. Term: Summer 2010 Mondays 10 a.m.-12 p.m. Lecture Room: SW 319. June 212010. A&G: Ch 6 - Aging of the Internal Organ Systems. This chapter discusses aging of the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and renalurinary systems. Normative age-related changes (i.e., changes common enough that most older adults can expect to experience them) are examined, in addition to the common diseases and malfunctions of the individual systems that can accelerate the aging process. Cardiovascular System Basic Anatomy and Physiology N The cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system. o sends antibodies, fluids, nutrients, hormones and oxygen to tissues in the body while removing waste such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions o composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood o arteries take blood away from the heart and the veins carry blood back to the heart N Blood is a highly complex fluid o Composed of white blood cells, red blood cells, water, platelets, nutrients such as fat globules, carbohydrates, and proteins Carries electrolytes to help maintain the acid based balance of hormones, neurotransmitters, other peptides necessary for homeostasis, cognition, movement and every other function of the body N The heart is the centre of the circulatory system. - Behind the chest wall - Enclosed in fibrous sac called the pericardium - Left and right sides have 2 upper chambers (atria) which collect blood and two lower chambers (ventricles) which serve as pumps o Atria: thin walled o Ventricles: walls are thicker and more muscular because of long distance pumping - Sympathetic NS: increase rate and strength of heartbeat - Parasympathetic NS: decrease rate and strength of heartbeat N The right and left sides of the heart each serve as a pump - The rate of blood flow as we know is greatly determined by the physical demands on the body www.notesolution.com N Veins are a huge reservoir for the bodys blood supply, as 64% of its volume is found in its veins Age-Related Changes - Cant do much to prevent aging of internal organs - Normative age changes related to the aging process that affects all of us - Cosmetic surgery cannot do anything - As we age there are changes in the cardiovascular system o Normal enlargement of heart mass > increase in myocytes (muscle cells) o Slowing of electrical activity of the heart o Increase in amount of fat tissue around the sinoatrial node > can lead to slow pulse called bradycardia o Changes in collagen in the middle layer of the LARGE arteries cause them to thicken and become stiff o Heart function is less efficient Decrease responsiveness during exercise, lower maximum HR, takes longer to return to resting levels after stress Disease-Related Processes Hypertension - Are diseases that will affect most of us as we age and some of these diseases are not exclusive to people over the age of 67 - Is a reading of 14090 or higher - Hypertension: high BP > can reduce our BP by reducing salt in our diet - We are starting to have companies reveal caloric intake in food. We should get them to show sodium because it affects our BP - 120180 is the optimal BP level for those above 18 years o White coat syndrome : once the person knows they are being monitored, they become anxious and it affects the BP reading o Essentially we dont get a realistic measure of what the individual BP really is because they are anxious after seeing the doctor o Become more at risk for high BP as we age o High BP will affect the body in many ways Damages lining of arteries by causing fast expansion and constriction Damage to collagen in the arterial walls also makes them stiffer Increase risk of heart and kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral vascular accidentsstrokes, atherosclerosis Can also lead to dementia > if you have high BP and the transportation of blood is affected, you dont get sufficient oxygen to the brain Damage from the disease occurs without symptoms showing First step of managing hypertension: weight control, lifestyle changes, decrease sodium intake, increase activity level N Obesity related to hypertension www.notesolution.com
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