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HLTB01 Midterm Review Sheet

16 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Dan Silver

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HLTB01 Midterm Review Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts in Agingy Modern recognition that aging processes are plasticy How we age and the rate at which we age are balanced between resources to which we access and the exposure to various toxins reflections of choices we makey Psychological gerontologists have focused more on describing what happens cognitively emotionally and socially as we ageo A view toward identifying factors that promote positive aging or a higher risk of negative agingy Idea of plasticity that we are turning points through which people can change the trajectories of their life coursey Biogerontologists focus on describing what happens at the molecular cellular and organ system levelo Models emerging in the field that emphasize factors that affect the rate of aging y Health psychology and behavioural medicine document that psychosocial factors can affect physical healthy Long term longitudinal studies allow us to understand predictors of the rate of the change in physical health cognitive ability and mental health in later life y Youngold persons ages 6579 y Oldold persons ages 8099 y Oldestold centenarians 100 y Youngold individuals are quite healthier and functional y Oldold persons are more likely to be physically and cognitive frail and need of supporty Hard to make generalizations about centenarians y Age number of years a person has been alivey Cohort group of people who share the same birth year or sometimes those who shared historical events WWII o A cohort may well have a experienced life course thats historically unique y Period time at which the measurements or assessment occurredy Ageeffect if a particular phenomenon always changes with age regardless or cohort or periody Cohort effect if the change is specific to a particular cohort but does not occur in any other groupy Period effect if all cohorts or ages change at a particular point in time y Life span absolute length of time a member of a given species may live currently 120 years in humans y Life expectancy length of time an average member of a particular cohort can expect to live o refers to the age at which half of a particular cohort will have died and demographers estimate that about thhalf of those born in the year 2000 will survive until their 77 birthdayy Age specific life expectancy refers to the average age of years that members of a given cohort who have reached a specific age can expect to livey Mortality deathy Morbidity illnessy Mortality rates number of people who die during a given period of timey Morbidity rates prevalence or total number of cases of a specific disease in a populationy Incidence of illness number of new cases in a yeary Acute illness often selflimiting and can be treated with medicinesy Chronic diseases often incurable treatment focus is on the management and delay of disability rather than curey Functional health ability to perform daily tasks such as shopping paying bills y Optimal aging more preferred term to use recognition that there may be different ways of aging well that people begin with different configurations of vulnerabilities and resources that affect how they age Chapter 5 Aging of the Skin and Musculoskeletal System Basic Anatomy and Physiology The Skin y The skin or integumentary system has several major functions o Front line of defence against harmful environmental influenceso Important part of our immunologic and endocrine systemo Critical in temperature maintenanceo Aids in homeostasiso Symbolic functions key component of our appearanceo Critical source of cues that affect social interaction y Largest and most visible organy Outermost layer called epidermisy Epidermis consists of keratinocytes o More than 90 of all epidermal cells o Protects the skin from outside harm and heal it when its injured o Necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D y Melanocytes make up about 2 of the cells in the epidermiso Produces melanin for keratinocyteso Gives colour to the skino Exposure to the sun results in an increase in melanin production protects the skin from damagey Langerhans cells make up 1 of the cellso Important part of the immune system o Responds to toxic allergic stimuliy Second layer called dermiso Consists largely of collagen and elastin tissueProvides strength and elasticity to the skino Blood vessels lymphatic tissue sweat glands hair follicles and nerves are embedded y Under the epidermis and dermis is a layer of subcutaneous fat consists of adipocytes fat cellsAgeRelated Changesy Changes in hair follicles due to graying and loss of hairy Wrinkles due to decrease in subcutaneous fat layer y Wrinkles around the eyes and deepening of the lines around the mouthy Decrease in the size and number of keratinocytes limits the skins ability to help the body produce vitamin Dy Decrease in melanocytes affects the skins ability to protect itself from the suny Langerhans cells decrease reduces the ability of the skin to respond to allergic stimuliy Dermis is 20 thinner in an old persony Fewer fibroblasts in the layer makes the skin less elastic y Flattening of the junction between the epidermis and dermisy Decrease in blood vessel availability predisposes the older person to both hypothermia and hyperthermiay Thinning of subcutaneous fat layer affects ability of the body to maintain homeostasisy Loss of sweat glands in the skin affects thermal regulation older people more vulnerable to higher temperaturesDiseaseRelated Processes Xerosisy Common problem of older people dry skin red scaly and itchy skin on legs back and arms y Cause unknown associated with slowing of the keratinocyte turnover ratey Troublesome during winter when people spend time indoors in a warm and dry environmenty Treatment application of skin creams after bathing to slow the loss of water from epidermis Seborrheic Keratosesy Oldage spotsy Benign nonmalignant lesions found in older peopley Brown to black in colour irregular edgesy Causes sun exposure hereditaryy Treatment be evaluated or removed
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