AGING AND THE LIFE CYCLE LECTURE NOTES FOR MIDTERM.docx

11 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC22H3
Professor
Michelle Silver

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Description
AGING AND THE LIFE CYCLE LECTURE NOTES FOR MIDTERM Epidemiology o The study of the determinants of health issues in specified populations and its distribution and the control of health problems Life span o Humans: max life span 120 years Compression of morbidity o The concept of pushing all the morbidity of ones life into as small a time period as possible o The goal of living disease- and illness-free for as long as possible 3 conditions that affect population size and structure o Immigration o Death rates o Birth rates Number of immigrants to Canada is about age 25-55 Dependency ratio o (Population 0-19) + (population 65+) / (population 20-64) Malignant tumor cells are able to invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body o The first sign that a malignant tumour has spread (metastasized) is often swelling of nearby lymph nodes, but cancer can metastasize to almost any part of the body. o Cancers are named after the part of the body where they start. Osteoporosis o In most cases, bones weaken due to low levels of: Calcium, phosphorus and other minerals Risk factors include: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) & other medications Arthritis o Two most common types: Osteoarthritis and Most common form Occurs when cartilage in joints wears down over time Can affect any joint in your body Rheumatoid arthritis Inflammatory form of arthritis Attacks the lining of joints causing swelling that can result in aching and throbbing and eventually deformity o Joint pain and stiffness are the main symptoms Tendinitis o Common around the shoulders, elbows, wrists and heels Ligaments o Surround joints and bind them together o Help strengthen and stabilize joints, permitting movement only in certain directions o Connect one bone to another Tendons o Attach each end of a muscle to a bone o Bursas are small fluid-filled sacs that can lie under a tendon, cushioning the tendon and protecting it from injury Connective tissues o Provide structure and support, often connecting other types of tissue to each other o Cartilage o Fascia Visceral fat: surrounds the internal organs Age related changes in soft tissue o Calcification: mineral calcium builds up in soft tissue, causing the tissue to harden o Microtears: very small tears found in tendons, ligaments and muscle o Cartilage stiffness, muscle loss and atrophy, decrease in muscle strength, endurance and reactivity The cardiovascular system o Main function Deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues Carry waste product to the organs responsible for elimination o Age related changes Enlargement of the heart Slowing of electrical activity Slowed pulse Increased blood pressure Decreased ability to cool down or heat up o Disease related processes Optimal blood pressure for adults is 120/80 Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting Diastolic pressure is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood Hypertension Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels. Arteriosclerosis The thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls Atherosclerosis One of the most common forms of arteriosclerosis The deposition of plaques inside the arterial wall Peripheral Vascular Disease a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Leading cause of heart disease Results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart o Angina pectoris o Myocardial infarction (MI)/Heart Attack Heart Failure When the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs Almost exclusively a disease of older people Cognitive Functioning and Decline The somatic nervous system o Participate in the organisms relationship with its external environment o Send information to the brain from the bodys various sensory detectors The autonomic nervous system o More involved in regulating vital internal functions o Help maintain internal equilibrium by coordinating such activities as digestion, respiration, blood circulation, excretion,
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