Lecture 3 Study Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Jason Ramsay

Lecture #3: Biological Basis of Human Development Genes, Environment, Brian Development th Monday, January 24 2011 Overview: What is the gradient? How is it related to health? How does the environment interact with genetics? How does the environment interact with genetics? How does this affect early development? Models for how this affects later outcomes The Gradient Common pattern of increase or decrease in a health outcome variable related to an increase or decrease in a measure of socioeconomic status (SES) Gradient effects on: o Increasing health status o Increasing neurocognitive status Within a Social Determinants of Health Perspective The idea of the gradient in predictingaccounting for health outcomes springs from the social determinants of health perspective This perspective argues that risk factors operating at the population level, that are socially distributed are as important as individual risk factors o E.g. smoking versus percentage of country below the poverty line Public Health Agency of Canada The weight of scientific evidence supports a socioeconomic explanation of health inequalities. The roots of ill health can be found in such determinants as income, education and employment as well as in the material environment and lifestyle. Also of significance is that poverty in Canada falls disproportionately on children. Three Big Facts: Differences in income distribution deeply affects health status of a countrys citizens The steeper the SES or income gradient, the stepper the differences in health status between rich and poor www.notesolution.com
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