Lecture 4 Study Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Jason Ramsay

Lecture #4: Early Exposure Latent Effects Monday, January 31 2011 The Dutch Hunger Winter, 1944-1945 During WWII, the advance to push the German army from Western Europe combined with a a very harsh winter to cut off most of the Netherlands from food supply The Dutch had to severely ration food and scrounge for essentials A famine ensued which lasted for a 5 month period Retrospective cohort research shows that the famine had a profound effect on the gestating fetus How much food did they get? Canals had frozen and food could not be transported overland By November 1944, rations had fallen to about 1000 calories per day Between December 44 and April 45, rations had fallen to 400-800 calories Eventually, the extra rations for pregnant women were not available Timing and Development This terrible famine had a specific course Therefore, the effects of various levels of caloric restriction can be studied In some ways, it is like a naturalistic experiment because the differential interaction of critical periods and caloric deficit can be examined What were the immediate effects? Had a profound effect on the health of the general population Mortality increased 2X over 1939 Extra death rate due o starvation However, women were still conceiving and giving birth to babies It is in these babies that we can see the effect of early malnutrition on health in adult life Prenatal Exposure to Famine www.notesolution.com
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