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Health Studies
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Jason Ramsay

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HLTB02 Reading Notes 2011 January 10 and 172011 Irwin, L.G., Siddiqi, A., & Hertzman, C. (2007). Early child development: A powerful equalizer. World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. P 1-25 early childhood as the period from prenatal development to eight years of age early child development (ECD) sets a critical foundation for a childs entire life because it influences basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry, and health ECD is due to social determinants of health and the governments must invest in it, acting equally to help families nurture their kids in proper environments globally Poor ECD leads to higher risk of many health implications and diseases as adults ECD includes: physical, socialemotional and languagecognitive domains The more stimulating the early environment (social interaction), the more positive connections are formed in the brain and the better the child thrives in all aspects of his or her life, in terms of physical development, emotional and social development, and the ability to express themselves and acquire knowledge. Family friendly policies guarantee adequate income for all, maternity benefits, financial support for the ultra-poor, and allow parents and caregivers to effectively balance their time spent at home and work. ECD is a predictor of adult gender inequity in all domains The environmental conditions to which children are exposed including the quality of relationships and language environment in the earliest years literally sculpt the developing brain. Socioeconomic inequities in developmental outcomes result from inequities in the degree to which the experiences and environmental conditions for children are nurturant. Thus, all recommendations for action stem from one overarching goal: to improve the nurturant qualities of the experiences children have in the environments where they grow up, live, and learn. transactional model = child is a social actor who shapes and is in turn shaped by his or her environment = principal driving force of child development is relationships Family environment most important for ECD, social factors in a family include parenting skills, education and health while economic factors include wealth, occupational status and dwelling condit. Residential community (where a family lives pop.) along with relational communities (the people, adults and children, who help form a childs social identity) also play a role in ECD National environment affects multiple determinants of ECD through wealth creation, public spending, child- and family-friendly policies, social protection, and protection of basic rights A major feature of the global environment in relation to childrens well-being is the element of power in economic, social, and political terms. Civil society groups are instrumental in organizing strategies at the local level to provide families and children with effective delivery of ECD services, to improve the safety, cohesion, and efficacy of residential environments, and to increase the capacity of local and relational communities to better the lives of children the agenda to improve child survival and health is indivisible from the agenda to improve ECD Governments should meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for poverty reduction, education and health Societies with the most successful policies and programmes for ECD spend approximately 1.5%2.0% of gdp per year on it Equity based approach = provide nurturant environment for all children Gradient-effect = This step-wise relationship between socioeconomic conditions and ecd ( higher SES, better ECD) The purpose of this document is to synthesize knowledge to inform the CSDH about opportunities to improve action on a global scale in the area of ECD The Total Environment Assessment Model of Early Child Development (TEAM-ECD) has been developed for the CSDH as a means of framing the types of environments (and therefore experiences) that are integral to healthy ECD, and linking these to the biological processes with which they interact to shape childrens outcomes. The Individual Child ECD has strong links to other social determinants of health, particularly Urban Settings, Gender, Globalization and Health Systems The Total Environment Assessment Model of Early Child Development (TEAM-ECD) has been developed as a means of framing the types of environments children are exposed to Early life brain development and environment are crucial for a baby, attachment, nutrition (from utero and breastfeeding) and biological embeddedness (interaction of genes and environment) also play a role Early years, sensitive areas of brain start to develop, particularly the central nervous system Brofenbrenner = developing brain and enviro. Is the driving force of development Malnutrition = one of the worst detriments in a childs life and development 150 million children under the age of 5 in developing world suffer from malnourishment Education of womenmothers will benefit the child, improving survival rates and school attendance Malnutrition = complex mix of all factorsdeterminants of health (education, ECD, food security etc) which begin in utero, affect physical and mental health Support from community for malnutritious families equally important Role of child play = key in ECD, universal to all cultures, its processes influence synaptic formation and are linked to secure attachment with caregivers and relationships with other children Stimulation (mothers and children playing with home-made toys with a focus on guided learning and exploration) has an effect on perceptual motor development outcomes among stunted children The Family Primary influence on child dev. Fundamental group and the natural enviro. Salient features of family environment: social (eg. education) and economic (wealth) resources Secure relationships and attachment to trusted caregiver, with consistent caring and affection = IMP Exploration in environment = self confidence in child, master and control environment Negative biological and environment factors for attachment: low birth weight, malnutrition, poverty, violence, maternal depression, low support from families Gradient effectof family resources SES on ECD = critical factor Family health conditions have a strong impact on ECD: chronic problem, partner violence, maternal depression, extreme poverty, family stress all lead to impaired child-parent relationships Prevalence of HIV greatly effect CD, contact it from mother, become orphans Fathers role very important, must be equal responsibility bw mother and father Lack of control of women - gender inequality, lead women to get less wealth and food, be denied health services and proper education Gender equity at the family level contributes in reducing poverty Girls kept at home to care for siblings = no education Family dwellings need to be clean and healthy (no pollution, harsh temperatures, overcrowding) to nurture healthy ECD Families need to have support in accessing resources that enable them to make choices in th best interest of their children , such as parenting skills, proper and affordable childcare, education, health Despite lack of resources, resilience (capacity of a child to thrive, despite adversity) creates nurturant environments and social relationships
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