2 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

Lecture 3–The Ecological Model of Child Development January 23, 2012 U. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Ecological Model  Microsystem: environment where child lives and moves; includes people and institutions that child directly interacts with; nuclear family members, child carers, teachers, peers  Mesosystem: relates to interactions people in microsystems have with each other; as parents interact with childcare providers, or as neighbours interact with each other; i.e., childcare, schools, religious groups, neighbourhood  Exosystem: broader community in which child lives; extended family, family networks, mass media, workplaces, community health systems, legal services, welfare services  Macrosystem: contains the attitudes and ideologies, values, laws and customs of a particular culture or subculture Spheres of Influence 1. The Individual Child 2. The Family 3. The Residential Community 4. ECD Programs and Services 5. Regional and National 6. The Global The Individual Child (Irwin et al. 2007) Biological Embedding Nutrition Relationships Play Biological Embedding  “The process of early experience becoming solidified and influencing health and development over the long-term” (Hertzman 1999, in Irwin et al. 2007: 19) o E.g., What happens in childhood may influence your life in adulthood (embedded) o What is an example of “biological embedding”:  The role of infant nutrition in later adult employment success Hertzman and Boyce (2010)  “Biological embedding occurs when experience gets under the skin and alters human biological processes; systematic differences in experience in a socially partitioned environment lead to different bio-developmental states; the difference are stable and long-term; and these differences influence health, well-being, learning, and/or behaviour over the life course” (Hertzman & Boyce 2010: 330) Key Messages: the Individual Child 1. Health, nutrition, and well-being of the mother are significant for the child’s development. 2. Three broad domains of development—physical, social–emotional and language–cognitive—are interconnected and equally important. 3. Children shape their environments as well as being shaped by them (“social actors”). 4. Social determinants shape brain and biological development through their influence on the qualities of stimulation, support, and nurturance available to the child. 5. Play is critical for a child’s overall development. The Family Social and Economic Resources  Social: parenting skills and education, cultural practices and approaches, intra-familial relations, and the health status of family members  Economic: wealth, occupational status and dwelling conditions (amongst others) Socioeconomic Status  Great consistency in the association between SES and a variety of development and health outcomes throughout the life course  Gradient Effect o Effect of family resources on ECD is most powerful explanation for differences in children’s well-being within societies, and these resources significantly affect all other aspects of the family environment Socioeconomic Status  Refers to a hierarchical structure that represents wealth, power (social, economic, political) and social prestige  Measured by factors such as occupation, income, education...  Individuals with higher SES tend to have better outcomes: higher academic achievement, better physical and mental health, increased literacy and decreased mortality rates  This “gradient effect” of SES with outcome is evident in all developed, industrial societies  It persists throughout the lifespan, thus kids born into low SES households tend to have poorer outcomes, even if they have higher SES later in life  Likely due to the sensitivity of the developing brain to its environment during infancy and childhood The Gradient Effect – Individuals with high SES have better ou
More Less

Related notes for HLTC23H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.