Week 8: Galbuzi article
This article is loonnngg but here we go.
* “poverty is a key cause and product of social exclusion”
* The groups that suffer some degree of social exclusion are:
* Immigrants and refugees
* racialized groups
* ppl w/ disabilities
* single parents
* children + youth in disadvantaged circumstances
* the elderly
* unpaid caregivers
* bisexuals and transgendered ppl
* Children whose health status is most at risk tend to live in low-income families, single families, or among racialized
group populations, inclusing immigrant and refugee families
and aboriginal families.
* Racialized community members, recent immigrants and
refugees, women, men, and their children expereince the
psychosocial stress of discrimination and racism, which
contribute to such health problems as hypertensions, mental
health, and behavioural problems such as substance abuse.
* Recent immigrants have historically enjoyed higher health
status b/c of the stringent health selection process in
Canada's immigrantion system, but social exclusion has
caused a loss of ground over time.
* Gender discrimination causes women's health status to be
* Immigrants account for 18.4% of the population and are
prjected to account for 25% in 5 years.
* Paul White's 4 aspects of social exclusion:
* Denial of participation in civil affairs, or systemic forms of
discrimination based on race, gnder, ethniicity, or disability
* Denial of social goods such as helath care, education,
housing, income insecurity and language services, and the
lack of a means of reducing discrimination.
* Exclusion from sicial production or the denial of opportunity
to participate in and contribute to social and cultural
* Economic exclusion or denial of access to economic
resources and opportunities such as participation in paid work.
* The characterisitics of social exclusion are often reinforcing.
* Canada used to be a welfare state, but now its more neo-
liberal, so the responsibilty of securing income security,
education, health care (to some extent), and integration into
society has been given to the individual.
* In Canada, immigrants (mainly recent and racialized
immigrants) are sociall excluded b/c of structural inequalities
in access to social, economic, political, and cultural
resources, such as the school system, criminal justice
system, health care system, health care system, and spatial
segregation of neighbourhoods.
* In 2001, 67% of the racialized community or population in
Canada were immigrants
* The Canadian population grew 3.9% between 1996 and
2001, while racialized groups grew 24.6%.
* Economic performance of these groups has lagged behind—
this has led to a racialized poverty in Canada.
* Economic inquality between immigrants and native-born
Canadians is becoming greater and more permanent.
* This was not always the case: immigrants used to
outperform native-born Canadians using their high education
levels and age advantage.
* The market has become more prominant in social regulation
* Different levels of gov't have retreated from anti-racism programs and policies.
* Immigrant and racialized groups have no power to put
social inequality on the political agenda.
* Recent immigrants are more than 2 to 3 times more likely
to live in poverty than other Canadians.
* The highest increase in low-income have been among
• Despite the increasing level of education immigrants
have been arriving with, their level of integration into the
Canadian labour market has been decreasing
* low-income rates have increased the most among
univeristy educated immigrants
* Latin Americans, Africans, Caribbeans, Arabs and West
Asians have poverty rates which were higher than the Toronto
poverty rate in 1996.
* Highly educated new immigrants have increasingly been
using food banks.
* Employers give little credit to foreign education and zero
credit for foreign work experience.
* Attachment to the labour marlet is essential for both the
livelihood and production of identity in society.
* It determines ability to meet material needs, provide a
sense of belonging, sense of self-esteem, all of which have
implications for health status.
* Stress is generated in and about the work place
* The neo-liberal, globalizing restructuring of the labour market has created new forms of work and employment
structures that have altered the traditional workplace
relationships and exacerbated the vulnerability of racialized
* Racialized workers are disproportio