International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Nov 16 (week 10, lecture 10)
Health and Environment
Ecology through the ages (472-3)
-From hunger gatherers (150 000 years ago)
-to domestication of animals and plants (10-15 000 years ago)
-to human settlements and cities (5000 years ago)
-to extractive industries (900-1500 years ago)
-to imperial exploitation (1600 onwards)
-to industrial revolution (19th century)
-to era of mass production and consumption
-environmental problems have accumulated during less than 10% of human history.
Political economy table
-range of underlying forces and responses of environmental health determinants.
Climate change (475-8)
-UN Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change reached consensus in 2007 that:
-temperatures are rising (more in last century than ever before; 1990`s hottest on record)
-related to human activities, especially fossil fuel burning
-magnitude of relationship, currently and in future, remains uncertain
-íPvZ}µ((_ulZZ]o~u}Z]ÁuÇvµooÇ}µ]vP gasses
trapping heat of sun)
-Huge rise in concentration of main greenhouse gases since 1750: CO2, CH4, N2O
-Is population increase, the cause?
-North America and Europe have less than 12% of global population but account for 60% of
energy consumption (30% by the US alone)
-S. Asia and Africa have 1/3 population, yet only 3.2% of world energy consumption
-in total underdeveloped countries (80%) of world population and OECD countries emitted
roughly equal carbon dioxide volume
-therefore, market forcesvshaping production and consumption patternsvare far more
important than populating in explaining patterns of fossil fuel consumption
Climate change: potential health consequences
-heat waves, droughts: food shortages and loss of arable and habitable land
-precipitation changes:
-arid areas becoming drier; wetter becoming more humid
-ocean levels rose by 10-20 cm in 20th century:
-water and air-borne pathogens
-mosquito breeding sites; new diseases
-potential displacement of human population (2/3 within 60km of sea line); diminishing
arable land
-damage to fisheries and aquifers
-loss of livelihood, malnutrition, increased susceptibility to disease.
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