the first pandemic, plague of justinian struck in 542 ce (decimated populations from asia to ireland. the second, the great black death of 14th century , the most destruction epidemic in the history of mankind: plagues suspected spread thru human contact led to the earliest attempts at international disease control. International health was (and is) interwined with social, political, and economic factors. The rise of imperialism, industrialization, global capitalism, and commerce played a critical role in shaping worldwide patterns of health and disease and spurring the formation of international health measures and institutions. International health institutions were formed for a variety of complex motives, far beyond shared health needs. the context of the cold war- the political and ideological contest between. the paradigm of economic development which was perceived as the sole path of progress for countries in asia, africa, and latin america. Current snapshot of international health actors, agencies, and programs.