IDSB04H3 Study Guide - Environmental Health, Precautionary Principle, Wangari Maathai


Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Page:
of 3
Climate Change: The how
"Greenhouse effect" makes earth habitable (atmosphere is warmed by naturally occurring gases
trapping heat of sun)
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Huge rise in concentration of main g-house since 1750: Co2, CH4, H2O
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Electricity generation
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Factory production
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Motor vehicle use
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Agriculture and land use changes
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Principal Sources:
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Market forces-- shaping production and consumption patterns-- are far more important than population
in explaining patterns of fossil fuel consumption
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Climate change: potential health consequences -p. 477-8
Heat waves
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Droughts: food shortage and loss of arable and habitable land
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Heat:
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Arid areas becoming direr, humid wetter
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Water and air borne pathogens
Mosquito breeding sites; new diseases
Potential displacement of human population (2/3 within 60km of sea line
Damage to fisheries and aquifers
Loss of livelihood, malnutrition, increased susceptibility to disease
Ocean levels rose by 10-20 cum in 20th century
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Precipitation changes:
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Box 10-2: climate change and human development
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The UNDP identifies five main mechanisms through which climate change may stall and or reverse
human development
Reduced agriculture 1.
P.479
Consequences of and responses to climate change go "
beyond the lifetime of politicians and business
leaders." more importantly, lowering
"greenhouse gas emissions will require significant...
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Ecological Footprints p. 480
Canadian ree and Wackernagel
P.480
2003 Global ecological foot print 2.3 hectares
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Human consumption outstripped earth's biological productivity by 20% in 2001
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But consumption is only part of the story...
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Box 10-3 Four Environment Worldviews
Market Liberal1. Approach to environmentalist
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Institutionalist2. There is a need for strong Global institution to set Voluntary standards
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Bio-environmentalist3. Scientific activist , to enhance earth's capacity
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There should be limits to economic growth
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Lower consumption
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People and mass of consumers are the problem
Lecture 10
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CH 10
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Health and the Environment
November-16-10
1:38 PM
Lecture Page 1
www.notesolution.com
People and mass of consumers are the problem
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Social greens4. Reject bio-environmentalist
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Not just consuming but also production
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Air Contamination p. 490-4
Vehicular emissions and aircraft exhaust
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Industrial emissions
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Garbage burning and household fuels
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Outdoor air pollution-green house gases
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Lung cancer
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Cardiopulmonary diseases
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Lead and ozone-asthma, bronchitis, cognitive loss
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Health consequences: particulate matter and acid rain
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Burning of biomass fuels (wood, dung, coal, crop waste)
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Chemical biological contaminants-building-related illness
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Indoor air pollution
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Death from pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, CVD reproductive problems, TB
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They are usual home
Especially affects women, children and elderly
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Health consequences
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Water Contamination-
Scarcity, unequal access, contamination
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Waterborne diseases kill 3million people per year
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Due to diarrhea and dysentery
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Carcinogens and toxins in contaminated water use by billions
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* water problems are not natural
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Box 10-9 Food Safety
Microbiological hazards
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Physical hazards
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Nutritional hazards
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Places contamination-p. 499-505
Land
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Mining
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Deforestation (Amazon)
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Sanitation and Garbage
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Dams and dilemmas of development
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Link between Water, Air, Place contaminations. P.506-8
Global and Regional Responses
Nation Responses p. 514-18
Regulation and standards
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Green taxes and incentive
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Waste minimization and recycling
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Corporate accountability
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Sustainable technologies
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Alternative energy soruces
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Box 10-15 Environmental protection and health promotions
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
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Lecture Page 2
www.notesolution.com
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Describes and estimates effect of proposed projects or policies on human health
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Health Impact Assessment (HIA)
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Advocates that precautionary measures be taken even if scientific inquiry has not definitively
established cause and effect relationships
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Shifts burden of proof of safety to proponents of an activity or policy
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Precautionary Principle (caution in The Absence of Knowledge)
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Local Responses and Efforts
Green cities and ecological design
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Automobiles and highways Vs. Public Transport
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Battling over built environment
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Traffic slowing
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Cycling
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Local transport
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Environmental budgets and charters
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Consumer Efforts-only part of the inconvenient truth and reality. p. 524
Using eco-friendly and recycled products
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Composting/ vegetation gardens
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Social Movement-p. 525-8 ****this will be on the exam, pick one and explain
Chipko India
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Greenbelt Movement-Wangari Maathai
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La Via Campesina
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Mining Watch
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Greenpeace
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Pesticide Action Network-Environmental monitorying
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Farmworker...
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Learning Points:
The political economy of environmental health analyzes the interaction of humans with the natural and
built environments. It traces the role and pressure of underlying economic and political forces on
environmental change, on the creation and spread of damaging agents and on ensuring health
consequences, as well as the interaction of policies, politics, technologies, and human actions with each
of these factors.
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Every society and economic order disrupts the environment to a greater or lesser extent. However there
have been persistent detrimental changes to the climate, land, forests, water, air, wildlife, and the
ecosystem writ large, on a far greater scale than ever before
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Environmental degradation and the means to redress it are simultaneously local and global: regional
variations may be understood within the logic of global capitalism
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Ameliorating and preventing damage to the environment and to human health requires actions at
household, community, national and global levels; social and political movements play a key role in
ensuring passage of protective legislation and industrial regulation
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Lecture Page 3
www.notesolution.com