IDSB04H3 Study Guide - Social Philosophy, Marginal Cost, Reproductive Health

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The Demographic Transition (Ch 2-0 box 2-2)
Virtually all societies have gone through a transition from
high mortality, high fertility
low mortality,
low fertility
Stage 1: high birth rate, high but fluctuating death rates
Stage 2: declining death rates and continuing high birth rates
Stage 3: declining birth and death rate
Stage 4: low death rates and low but fluctuating birth rates
Two social philosophers:
Population increases geometrically; subsistence, arithmetically. Poverty is the result unless there
is moral restraint
Thomas R. Malthus: an essay on the principles of population (1798):
Each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction
The more offspring a family had, the more product it will produce
Supported young child labour
Karl Marx, Das Kapital (1867):
Possible Explanations for low fertility
Shift from subsistence agriculture to factory means smaller family size needed
Higher marginal cost of extra child in urban setting /decline of multi-family households
More women educated and in paid labour force
Don't need to depend on your child to take care of you at your old age
Development of social security systems
Long workdays/shift work = less leisure time
Contraceptive technologies/ birth spacing-intro of condoms
Abdel Omran and the Epidemiologic transition (ch 2, box 2-4)
Long-term shifts in overall mortality rates and patterns of diseases
Big climate event
Pestilence and famine
Age of receiving pandemic
Industrial "accidents' and exposures
Congenital problems
Environmental toxins/ food production
Cardiovascular diseases
Work, stress, and class inequality
All of the above + resurgence of infectious disease
Capitalism and globalization
Age of degenerative and human made diseases
Stages of the transition
The notion of a uniform epidemiologic transition only reinforces the stereotype that people in
developing countries only die of infectious diseases and people in industrialized countries only die of
noncommunicable diseases, and that the latter pattern is 'more advanced'' than the former.
Lecture 5
CH 6 Epidemiologic profiles of Global Health and Disease
1:12 PM
Lecture Page 1
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