IDSB04H3 Study Guide - Social Philosophy, Marginal Cost, Reproductive Health

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The Demographic Transition (Ch 2-0 box 2-2)
Virtually all societies have gone through a transition from
high mortality, high fertility
to
low mortality,
low fertility
-
Stage 1: high birth rate, high but fluctuating death rates
Stage 2: declining death rates and continuing high birth rates
Stage 3: declining birth and death rate
Stage 4: low death rates and low but fluctuating birth rates
Two social philosophers:
Population increases geometrically; subsistence, arithmetically. Poverty is the result unless there
is moral restraint
|
Thomas R. Malthus: an essay on the principles of population (1798):
-
Each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction
|
The more offspring a family had, the more product it will produce
|
Supported young child labour
|
Karl Marx, Das Kapital (1867):
-
Possible Explanations for low fertility
Shift from subsistence agriculture to factory means smaller family size needed
-
Higher marginal cost of extra child in urban setting /decline of multi-family households
-
More women educated and in paid labour force
-
Don't need to depend on your child to take care of you at your old age
|
Development of social security systems
-
Long workdays/shift work = less leisure time
-
Contraceptive technologies/ birth spacing-intro of condoms
-
Abdel Omran and the Epidemiologic transition (ch 2, box 2-4)
Long-term shifts in overall mortality rates and patterns of diseases
-
Big climate event
Pestilence and famine
|
Age of receiving pandemic
|
Industrial "accidents' and exposures
War
Transports
Trauma
Cancer
Diabetes
Congenital problems
Environmental toxins/ food production
Cardiovascular diseases
Work, stress, and class inequality
All of the above + resurgence of infectious disease
Capitalism and globalization
Age of degenerative and human made diseases
|
Stages of the transition
-
The notion of a uniform epidemiologic transition only reinforces the stereotype that people in
developing countries only die of infectious diseases and people in industrialized countries only die of
noncommunicable diseases, and that the latter pattern is 'more advanced'' than the former.
-
Lecture 5
-
CH 6 Epidemiologic profiles of Global Health and Disease
October-12-10
1:12 PM
Lecture Page 1
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