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Final

final exam study notes

8 Pages
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Department
International Development Studies
Course Code
IDSB04H3
Professor
Maliha Chishti

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Week 8
Environmental ethics
-explores the unferlying moral relationship b/w humans and non human world and
challenges the assumed moral superiority of human beings via other species.
-Hierarchal relation b/w humans and nature
Origins
Intellectual: Aristotle said, ‘nature has made all things specifically for the sake of man’.
Religious/traditional view: insist that humans have domination over the earth’s plants
and animals.
Economist view: capitalism’s commodification of antural resources and the idea of
infinite resources to be converted into profits (Kovel 2002)
Terra Nullius:Wastelands
-classical notion of terra nullius refers to lands that were constructed asempty” by
european colonizers :lands considered to be insufficiently developed, underutilized,
idlewastelands. Edward Said said, “ waste, disorder, uncounted resources, was to
be converted into productivity…
-John Lockes justified the Bristish appropriation of indingenious lands without
consent by saying that these lands were not put to productive and profitable use
underlying the assumption that lands and resources that are elft idle must be used and
utilized.
Ecofeminism
Priciples of 3rd world (Vandana Shiva/Maria Mies/Ana Isla)
1- the women/nature connection
-women’s interaction with the env./nature is a reciprocal process. Women’s bodiea
and life cycles are ‘prodcutive in the same way as nature’s forces are productive and
creative. Sice women arelifgiving as nature, there is a closer intimated bond they
have with the natural world.
-Due to modernization and colonialism, men entered into modern and exploitative
work, while women continued to be linked to life/nature thru their ongoing role as
lifeproviders of food, sustenance and water.
-Nature and women who work to reproduce life are often declared asunproductive
and her work is only considered productive if it’s part of the market economy.
2- women asknowers and “transmitters of earth knowledge:
-women in village and rural areas have been givers of traditional knowledge about
natural environment. They have created rich and elaborate knowledge about seeds,
crops,waters, conservation and use of plants/teess eg use of medical plants.
-This was non commercial knowledge and had exchange value so was often ignored
by everyone. Medical plants for eg were traditionally produced for family’s
www.notesolution.com
consumption and remain unrecognized b/c it is linked to “housewifesed” workers-
women whose work is seen as non work and non knowledge. Eg neem tree is a good
detozer for skin, fertilizer pesticide; when it became public, people who owned it
weren’t allowed to use it.
Week 9
3) Interconnection b/w domination and oppression of women and the domination and
exploitation of nature
Scientific revolution and the growth of a market oriented culture gave way to a
mechanistic view in which nature was reconceived as something to be controlled
and dominated and used for the material well being of me. In the same way,
science and technology is rooted in the patriarchal assumptions of serving male
interests through dominating, disciplining and controlling women (bodies, labor)
The devaluing and derecognizing of nature has led to the ecological crisis just as
the devaluation and derecognizing of women’s work had created sexism and
inequity b/w men and women.
4) Interconnected oppression and non hierarchal system of thought and activism.
Feminist and environmental/ecological movements must stand together to
promote egalitarian and non hierarchal systems(such as resisiting
man>nature/women, western men >eastern men, modern men>traditional men,
science>nature, etc)
Critical analysis must highlight the important connections among systems of
oppression/domination(western-scientific /thought/political/economic/empirical)
as they implicate and render secondary women/environment/ and non-colonized
people.
Race: is a socio-historical construct (not scientific, nor genetic, nor biological) that
shapes societal, / institutional structures and racial designation have real (damaging)
material consequences.
Race is described as a public taboo by Sarah White in her article; silenced; not much
written; becomes uneasy; in development, gender is known; class is known too; Sarah
White says race is absent in development.
decade from now- and I expect sooner rather than later our descendants are bound to
wonder how five sixths of humanity allowed their lives to be easily run according to
the dictates and needs of other one-sixth” Claude Alvaves (1995)
Race, racism and international development
(Theorists: George Sefa Dei; Njoki Wave; Ann Stoler; Chandra Mohanty; Mahmood
Mamdani)
www.notesolution.com
1) Recognizing thatbodies are marked and are not neutral in development
setting. Certain bodies have ‘power’ and ‘privilege over others
2) Raced and colonial hierarchies are institutionalized and often go ‘unnoticed’,
shaping development policies and practices.
-Whatever race we are from, the fact that we are from West comes with a lot of
assumptions like we have money, knowledge, are US, better educated and
arrogant.
3) Communities are ‘racialized’ by an over generalization of their language,
culture, religion ethnicity as markers of their difference/ unequal treatment vis
a vis our ‘neutrality’.
-We westerners are neutrals but we go in for development and navigate only on
basis of simple/basic knowledge rather than complex which we should to really
know those people.
4) Structural racism prevents pluralism and the recognition that
differences/diversities are sometimes irreconcilable.
- Yuval Dais: move into places where you have solidarity and disengage from ones
that are reconcilable.
Week 11
Community and participatory development (PD)
-Real outcomes of community engaged ought to be: freire said: dialogue cannot
exist unless dialoguer engage in critical thinking - when two groups come
together for a common purpose there is solidarity between them and no distinction
– thinking which perceives reality as process, not as end products – critical
thinking contrasts with naive thinking
-Participatory development broadly aims to increase the involvement and decision-
making power of socially and economically marginalized peoples through:
oLocal prioritization of development needs or abottom-up” approach
oFocus on individual agency (rational, moral actors) linked to social
structures to achieve reforms
oRecognition/centering of Local Knowledge/indigenous knowledge
systems
oInclusion of marginalized community members to promote more equitable
development (women, poor, youth, children, ethnically/religiously
minoritized members of community)
oChanging aid relations by a facilitative role of outsiders as ‘passive’,
‘reflective actors working within communities
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Week 8 Environmental ethics - explores the unferlying moral relationship bw humans and non human world and challenges the assumed moral superiority of human beings via other species. - Hierarchal relation bw humans and nature Origins Intellectual: Aristotle said, nature has made all things specifically for the sake of man. Religioustraditional view: insist that humans have domination over the earths plants and animals. Economist view: capitalisms commodification of antural resources and the idea of infinite resources to be converted into profits (Kovel 2002) Terra Nullius: Wastelands - classical notion of terra nullius refers to lands that were constructed as empty by european colonizers :lands considered to be insufficiently developed, underutilized, idle wastelands. Edward Said said, waste, disorder, uncounted resources, was to be converted into productivity - John Lockes justified the Bristish appropriation of indingenious lands without consent by saying that these lands were not put to productive and profitable use underlying the assumption that lands and resources that are elft idle must be used and utilized. Ecofeminism Priciples of 3 world (Vandana ShivaMaria MiesAna Isla) 1- the womennature connection - womens interaction with the env.nature is a reciprocal process. Womens bodiea and life cycles are prodcutive in the same way as natures forces are productive and creative. Sice women are lifgiving as nature, there is a closer intimated bond they have with the natural world. - Due to modernization and colonialism, men entered into modern and exploitative work, while women continued to be linked to lifenature thru their ongoing role as lifeproviders of food, sustenance and water. - Nature and women who work to reproduce life are often declared as unproductive and her work is only considered productive if its part of the market economy. 2- women as knowers and transmitters of earth knowledge: - women in village and rural areas have been givers of traditional knowledge about natural environment. They have created rich and elaborate knowledge about seeds, crops,waters, conservation and use of plantsteess eg use of medical plants. - This was non commercial knowledge and had exchange value so was often ignored by everyone. Medical plants for eg were traditionally produced for familys www.notesolution.com
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