-explores the unferlying moral relationship b/w humans and non human world and
challenges the assumed moral superiority of human beings via other species.
-Hierarchal relation b/w humans and nature
Intellectual: Aristotle said, ‘nature has made all things specifically for the sake of man’.
Religious/traditional view: insist that humans have domination over the earth’s plants
Economist view: capitalism’s commodification of antural resources and the idea of
infinite resources to be converted into profits (Kovel 2002)
Terra Nullius: “Wastelands”
-classical notion of terra nullius refers to lands that were constructed as “empty” by
european colonizers :lands considered to be insufficiently developed, underutilized,
idle “wastelands”. Edward Said said, “ waste, disorder, uncounted resources, was to
be converted into productivity…”
-John Lockes justified the Bristish appropriation of indingenious lands without
consent by saying that these lands were not put to productive and profitable use
underlying the assumption that lands and resources that are elft idle must be used and
Priciples of 3rd world (Vandana Shiva/Maria Mies/Ana Isla)
1- the women/nature connection
-women’s interaction with the env./nature is a reciprocal process. Women’s bodiea
and life cycles are ‘prodcutive” in the same way as nature’s forces are productive and
creative. Sice women are “lifgiving” as nature, there is a closer intimated bond they
have with the natural world.
-Due to modernization and colonialism, men entered into modern and exploitative
work, while women continued to be linked to life/nature thru their ongoing role as
lifeproviders of food, sustenance and water.
-Nature and women who work to reproduce life are often declared as “unproductive”
and her work is only considered productive if it’s part of the market economy.
2- women as “knowers” and “transmitters” of earth knowledge:
-women in village and rural areas have been givers of traditional knowledge about
natural environment. They have created rich and elaborate knowledge about seeds,
crops,waters, conservation and use of plants/teess eg use of medical plants.
-This was non commercial knowledge and had exchange value so was often ignored
by everyone. Medical plants for eg were traditionally produced for family’s