IDSA01H3 Notes Weeks 1-12 (Entire Course)

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International Development Studies
Leslie Chan

IDSA01H3 Week 2 What is theory? - To predict/explain & approve or disapprove with evidence - Reduces complexity so we can understand a topic better Modernization Theory - Began within the 40’s & 60’s - Post WW2 - Development required the transition from traditional to modern societies - Traditional: Agriculture production, primitive, low technology, based on religious beleifs - Modern Technology: Industrial, high technology & national identity - Modernization required a process of stages or steps - Rostow’s 5 Stages: Traditional Society > Pre-Take off (Investment) > Take off (High mass consumption) > All states will go through these stages eventually GINI Co-efficient - The closer to 100 the more inequitable a region is - And further from 100 makes it equitable. “Another World is not only possible, she is on her way on a quiet day, I can hear her breathing” Search up Global North: Political power, strong countries of the north (Europe, Americas etc..) Global South: Colonialized countries and countries that are basically living within more poverty Development is progress: Discourse: A word that can be represented by a picture Tutorial 1 (Week 3) [email protected] Social Construct: People have created a meaning and the meaning is changing depending on who created and interpreted it. For example: Marriage used to be between man and wife and now it is changing, you see men marrying men, women marrying women etc… - Social media changes the way we perceive development - Modernization theory* - Midterms are mainly based on tutorials Arab Springs Article: Bringing democracy into the Arab world, talking through European points of view. Democracy should be brought to them. Author is critical towards Europe opinions. Arab world needs time to develop. The citizens need to participate; it can only be done from the bottom up, not something that the government will introduce. (Political science interests) - What is arab springs? - Civic participation - Simple to read based on background research and concepts CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) - Development aid isn’t really helping - Explains how they used to be very powerful, but there has been a big global power shift, they are now diminishing - Critical towards who is really getting aid, and about the actual agency, what are the results? , What’s really going on behind the scenes? - Agree with CIDA being bad or disagree (Bring in evidence of both sides, and justify your claims) - Recommended for IDS Students, concerned with development Darfur Article - About genocide in darfur, a region in Sudan. - The issue is between ethnic and religious groups - Government is supporting Muslims and killing the rest of the people - Issue is based on the colonial roots - Needs to be more international intervention - Media is getting tired, people aren’t talking about it anymore. Why did the media stop? We need more action to be done. - Recommended to someone interested in history/political science Niger Delta Oil Spill - Shell’s pipeline burst and spilled into the rivers ruining people’s livelihood - People in the area used the river to sustain themselves - Shell offered to pay the people off but they refused because the people don’t believe it is fair. The government believes that Shell should clean the spill before giving out money compensation - Author is critical towards Shell (Maybe a bit too supportive towards the people? He isn’t looking at both sides of the issue) Haiti (Earthquake) - Followed the story of a man giving money to a particular family in Haiti - He is Canadian and helping a little girl who survived - Explains how the rich stay rich and poor stay poor, unequal development - Rich live lofty lives while the poor are still living in destruction - Balanced view not bias to one side or the other Week 3 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Key players/actors in international development - World Trade Organization - United Nations - UNICEF - NATO - Green Peace - War Child - Doctors without borders - World Vision - Multi lateral and bilateral agencies - Multination corporations - Foundations (Roca fella foundation etc…) Affiliated with rich and powerful people. Using their money they made from their businesses - Think Tanks (Experts in certain fields come together and face issues) - CSO (Civil society organization) - National Development Agency - International NGO’s - Local Clinic - Philanthropic Org. (Bill Gates Foundation) - International Development Agency United Nations Systems: - Sometimes organizations like such don’t do as much help World Economic Forum: - Powerful non-government institutions - Not comprised of NGO’s - Not accountable to government systems or citizens What guides the actions of development actors? - Publicity - Alternative interests (Use it as a way to get into the market, corporate or personal gain) - Give aid to a country and they’re in debt to you - Tied Aid: Aid given for a specific purpose, the recipient country has to do what the contributing country specifies (Strategic and political interests built into these) Good Governance: - Giving aid to help the country - Having equal laws for everybody - You can’t invest money unless there are rules of law - Rather than giving money and not knowing where it goes Development as the provision of public goods - Infrastructure (Roads and railways) - Clean safe drinking water - Education - Development in certain countries is used to make sure these public goods are accessible How do these various actors/players interact? - Direct resource flow o Official development assistance o Unofficial aid flow - NGO’s don’t collaborate with each other when they’re in the same country Why don’t they work together and go big, rather than doing small jobs Development Theories: - Dependency o The system is built so that development is not allowed at all o Foreign countries basically are made dependent on and they extract resources from these countries o International NGO’s o Local Ngo’s - Modernization o Development is a project o Follow western views and progress o Through technology and major industrialization o Urbanization o Multinational corporations - Liberalism o Liberalist view, is all about free flow of capital, and minimum government intervention o Market expansion so capital can flow o Development is reached through economic growth o This can be possible by lowering tariffs and taxes, so foreign countries can come into the market o Privatize so that institutions can make money so the economy can flourish o Represented by Multinational corporations and philanthropic - Marxist Theory o Thinking in terms of global structure, but looking primarily at the working class o Optimistic about change, but the government needs to be overthrown o Revolution is needed for change o In order for working class to get power they need a revolution - Keynesian Theory (Development & Economics) o Free market doesn’t work, if there’s no regulations the country can fall into debt and businesses were spending more than they had o All the companies came in, and when there was an economic crisis they pulled out and the local people were left with poverty and a destroyed economy o There needs to be regulations and restrictions enforced by the government. o You cant rely completely on foreign investments, you need safety nets incase of economic crisis o Would favor multinational and national corporations - Post development o Development is a myth o There’s no one way of doing it, there are many different ways for the countries o Paying strong attention to language, culture and traditional values o Local civic movements are key for post development (Local NGO’s helping out) The people are speaking out for what they need o Development is a social construct o Local Civic NGO’s o International Development agencies o Could be any of them as there is not just one way for development Discussion Questions: - 1. Why is the concept of "development" highly contested and why there are so many definitions? Development is the provision of public goods (roads, infrastructure, healthcare etc.) and the drive towards industrialization and modernity, also the concept of being able to have adequate living standards of the people. The concept of development is highly contested because of the fact that there are so many different views towards its, for example the westerners believe in development as a series of steps which need to be undertaken to gain modernity and development. Development has many definitions due to this, there are so many different views towards development, and in a way different beliefs in the methods on how to attain development (Liberalism, Keynesian, Marxist etc… are different theories on how to attain it) - 2. Scholars refer to development as being a "social construct". What does it mean? A social construct is when a theory or belief is constantly changing in relation to various factors, for example the media, education, religion etc… Development is a social construct as it is always changing, and different in the views of different people. For example, the different theories of development are evidence as to how development can be a social construct, there are many different views, and which one a country choses to use to attain development can be constantly changing, or even changing depending on the person/groups within the country. - 3. Why does Moyo think that massive foreign financial aid has been detrimental for the African continent? What evidence did you use to support her argument that most African countries are worst off as a result of continuous aid? Week 4 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding the relationship between Colonialism and Development - In order to understand present ideas, we must look back to see how the ideas have first began Niall Ferguson (Ted Talks) - 19% of the world owns most of the wealth of the world (Westerners, European, Americans, Australians) - By the 1970’s the western empires were a lot more rich then the Asians - Laws and rules were the reasons which pushed the western colonies to prosper - The ideas and institutions change nations, not geography, etc… the laws and rules are what made the westerners so successful The Wests Killer apps - Competition: Unlike china who had uniformity Britain did not - The scientific Revolution: - John Locke’s land posession - Modern Medicines: Finding medicine to help with diseases that killed vast amounts of people. Once this happened life expectancy raised - The Work Ethic: If the institutions are there to produce the work, people will have the work ethic to work. - Adam Smith explained that China got stuck in a certain stage which was why they couldn’t advance further, if they had a better system of government they could’ve succeeded a lot more - The great chain of being: Christian view of the structure of the world 1. Describe some potential rationales or motivations for countries to provide development aid. Link those rationales to development theories discussed last two weeks. Provide examples to illustrate your point. 2. Non-state actors are playing increasingly important roles in international development both in terms of funding and agenda setting. What are some examples of such non-state actors and how do they alter the landscape of international development. Understanding the historical relationship between Colonialism and development  Why history matters?  Tracing the conception of development and its relationship with other key ideas in Western thoughts.  Challenge some key assumptions about the impact of Colonialism. Why history matters?  Important to understand the history of “ideas”  Ideas drive actions – for better or worse  Ideas evolve – knowing the paths of change  Ideas are resurrected – given new life and meanings in new contexts Everything up until reading week is on the midterm 2 short questions which will be taken from the study questions posted, rest multiple choice Understanding the historical relationship between colonialism and development History and why it matters -Its important to understand the history of ideas -> Ideas drive action (good or bad) -Ideas evolve -Ideas are resurrected and given alternate meaning in new contexts -It is important understand how everything changes (Development wasn’t always the way it was, the idea of it has changed over time) -Cant blame this on imperialism, Laws and rules invented by reason -> things set in place allowed for things to happen the way they did -The Adam smith invisible hand is the decision the consumer makes to pick the cheap product and regulate the prices -Capitalism is all about profit Ted talk - -195,000 billion of wealth in the world -> most was made after 1800 and was created and owned by westerners for the most part - -In 1500 Indians and UK were equal, in 1970, the UK is 10x richer - -The western empires were only 5% of the world’s territory, 15% population and 20% of the worlds GDP yet they owned so much - -19% of the population has 66% of the wealth - -Laws and rules invented by reason was the explanation people gave for the previously weak white people such dominance - -Geography or character were not the reason for the disparity, its ideas and institutions - -6 things set the west apart from the rest and created divergence -> 1. Competition –(Competition between states in Europe, between sovereign / competition between corporations) -> Also the race to colonize the new world 2. Scientific revolution – Britain’s great technological advancement allowed them to build one the strongest navy’s which gave them dominance over other countries such as China. Other advancements allowed them to do things other countries simply couldn’t. Britain melded science and religion together well, unlike the Muslims. 3. Property rights – This is important because it a step into the market, people can charge for rent, land, and allows them to claim something as their own with legal right to it 4. Modern medicine – It allows for people to live longer, a healthier society is a harder working society 5. Consumer society – This allowed for the economy goes around, more people working, more people spending, more things being made 6. Work ethic - The divergence has finished, the work ethic shifted, math scores are being beat, work hours are being beat, technological innovation is losing out to the east -Western decline isn’t inevitable but it doesn’t mean it cant happen Ted talk by: Niall Ferguson Tutorial _________________________________________________________________________________________________ TA: Merli Tamtik Colonialism - Began in the 1500’s - The first two colonial powers were Spain and Portuguese, followed by British, France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands - Spanish and Portuguese first went to the Americas - British France and Germany went to Asia and Africa - Colonialism ended after world war two (1950’s) Colonialism Definition: Practice of domination involving subjugation of one people to another. Also involves settling and occupying a specified territory. Neo-Colonialism Normally independent but remain subject of control by others. Formally independent but still dependent by the markets of the west and other countries. What was used to justify colonialism? - “White mans burden” Where the white people were trying to civilize the “uncivilized” - Europeans thought they were helping everyone else civilize themselves - But they never mentioned the economic gains that came to them out of colonization - They governed either by Direct Rule or Indirect Rule - Direct Rule: Going there and living there and representing one of the power countries. They governed the territory by themselves - Indirect Rule: Sponsor a leader, a local person who helped to govern under the rules of these countries (usually just a puppet) Discussion Questions: 1. Niall Ferguson's argument for prosperity is in effect a form of modernization theory. Discuss. - He believed that because the west had rules and regulations it set them apart from everyone else - In comparison to traditional value ruling for example - 195,000 billion of wealth in the world -> most was made after 1800 and was created and owned by westerners for the most part - - Counter arguments: His argument doesn’t make sense just because these stages worked for Europe doesn’t mean it’ll work for every country especially when they have Europe trying to control them, - They had no consideration for the history language and culture of these countries 2. What are the links between colonialism and dependency theory? (Think about the image of Gandhi in Ferguson's talk) - The arrangements are made between the core and the little elites within the periphery. The elites are benefitting and the core is also benefitting by exploiting the country - The countries are dependent on commodity goods, because the system is just structured in a way that the country depends on the core (creating jobs, bringing in revenue etc…) without these resource extractions the country would lose a lot of the economic growth coming from these countries - Dependency theory Week 5 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Developing Civil Society Civil Society: - Abiding to laws - Active citizenship - Interaction of different cultures and religions Roman God Janus - Roman god of transitions - Looks both to the future and to the past Civil society is Janus faced - Possessing both civil and uncivil features Civil Society Within Canada: - NGO’s could represent civil society within Canada - Canadian Cancer Society, Churches, Mosques, Temples, Environmental organizations etc… could represent civil society - On a more negative side gangs, lobbyist, etc… also make up civil society Growth of Civil Society - Globalization/Economic Liberalization - Privatization/deregulation - Decentralization How to define civil society - The realm that exists between the state, the market and the individual - That realm that is made up of associations, formal or informal - Interaction over a sustained period of time (helping people out and making them feel like they want to help someone as well Social Capital Benefits: - Revives inclusive communities - Trains effective citizens - Promotes civic engagement Political Capital Benefits: - Does civil society connect with everyone around the world - Is civil society an entity, a thing or a variable (with something else it creates something) - - Think about civil society in a broader structural context o Social structures: Is society structured along class lines? o Political Structures - The state determines who has access to power and its resources - Civil society Is a diverse array of competing actors rather than one unified actor - Its boundaries are constantly porous and uncertain Citizens and Development Challenges for development - Citizens in many countries do not enjoy equal rights and entitlements - They may have rights in theory but not rights in practice - Inability of citizens to hold governments accountable or responsive - For many people in the world do not experience citizenship in practice or rights practice - For most people they either don’t have it, or if they do they don’t practice it - Development is not only about aid but also about giving rights _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tutorial 5 Civic Society and Civil Participation Civil society is a society where people are actively engaged in social organizations, and not controlled by the states. The Goal is to guarantee a democratic society. Good Governance: - A relationship between the social organizations and the state that maximizes common good - Principles of good governance: o Democracy o Transparency in decision making, openness o Responsiveness, being responsive to certain concerns & problems o Where diversity is accepted o Inclusiveness, different groups in the community and society are included o Two main players include the state and the people Power Characteristics Strategies for Social Change Visible Power Formal decision making - Change visible bodies. (State & local power by voting governments them out. - Public advocacy groups/lobbying Hidden Power Organization supporting - Use of media the elites or main power. channels (exposing Vested interests “back the issues, and stage” politics. For creating example Tied aid. awareness) - Academic research Invisible Power The case when people - Education (adult don’t realize they have education and also existing rights, they accept basic education on the ideas and think it’s the rights etc.) right way to live/be. - Challenge the Relates to the powerless educational groups who don’t have a systems voice in the community. - Media channels Awareness of one’s (International interest is hidden, they do media) not know about their potential rights. Discussion Questions 1.) Why were their perspectives so different? Paul Kingston was more skeptical while professor von lires was more optimistic Professor Kingston: - Society is not a singular unit, it’s more of a diverse organizations - There’s so many different NGO’s working, but they aren’t working together, there’s so much money going into maintaining these organizations but no real impact is being made - There needs to be a collaboration between these small units, they need to come together rather than try and do their own thing. - All these different organizations have different interests, and it depends on who funds them or who they are in collaboration with. For example if there are organizations who are sponsored by the state then it will be bias to what the state wants, not what people want or need. Focused on the hidden and invisible power structures. Von Lieres Optimism: To make real change you have to start from the bottom up, these civil societies can bring about the social change that they need. For example, community budgeting in Brazil (Where the community explains and decides with the people how money is spent) If they work together they build knowledge and infrastructure and can become more powerful as a group The country’s experience and know how is also an important factor (Latin America has a lot of experience) They also need willingness of the state to support civil society organizations. In some countries where the political regime is changing constantly or changing regardless, in the window between the two governments is where the civil society organizations can move in and have an impact. Rather than having strong political influences go against it. In this way they’re more likely to listen. 2.) Von Lieres Talked about the “Right to have rights” what does it mean, and how can we make sure that everyone has the right to have rights. - This can be done through education, and awareness. - The citizens and people need to be more aware of their own rights and have to have access to that - The state has to make sure that every person in the country has basic human rights. (Everyone should be protected and their rights under the law) - Some people though are not considered as citizens and aren’t treated the same o Refugees o Asylum seekers o Migrant workers - Linked to the moral obligation of the international global community _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Week 6 Poverty and Inequality, Political and Economic Perspectives Professor Judith Teichman Poverty and Inequality (From a political perspective) - Poverty and inequality are linked to power inequalities, both international and domestic - Those who have the power the ones who decide or heavily influence the distribution of resources. - Inequalities of income and inequalities of assets - A combination of policies are needed for development o Employment generating “industrial” policy o The kind of policies which can help the un-employed become employed o You also need appropriate social policies (Health care, education, pensions etc.) o Social policies need to have a positive distributive impact o You can’t have programs that look after certain classes over others (policies that focus on only middle class, or only poor etc.) - Why do you need both? - Due to social and economic reasons (helps the economy) - It’s easy to redistribute wealth when you have a growing economy - Growing economy can be gained through industrial policies - Without these you could get political backlash when people or businesses don’t like the policies Power inequality at the level of the international level - Stabilization and Structural Adjustment, 1980’s - IMF & World bank established stabilization agreements that entailed drastic cut backs on government expenditures - Which had a drastic cut back on social spending and policies - World Bank introduced SAP’s, changing up trade policies, lowering tariffs and making it easy to pay people a lot less and make them more disposable - There was no concern about social impacts at the time - By the time they realized a lot of the damage had already occurred Domestic Political Changes - There’s a lot of resistance against reducing inequality - Global south countries are entrenched by a legacy of social compartmentalization - All the years of imperialism and colonialism makes it hard to overcome - If you’re born as a peasant in a rural area, the chances of you entering middle class are slim to zero - Very little upwards social mobility - This manifests itself for the people of upper classes to constantly look down upon the lower classes - Lack of empathy and understanding - The legacy of State weakness - Is the state manipulated by powerful groups or can they make their own decisions and help the social classes Example: - 1995 banks went under, horrible recession - The powerful people who owned the banks had asked the government for help, the government had helped the bank owners who had been his friends and close to him - Only a small part of the population get access to healthcare, the govt. spends too much on the powerful groups and not enough or any on lower classes Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: - First one took place in Brazil - Geared towards addressing the poverty of extremely poor - You give money to the women of the households and the women agree to taking the children to health clinics and schools - It helps but once they’re educated they want jobs but where do they get jobs? How can Countries Meet these Political Changes? - Not just empowerment, but reducing the power of the already powerful - Most people don’t address the issue of reducing the power of the powerful - Challenging the powerful can actually worsen the power of the poor - Powerful will stop investing and money wont come into the economy Electoral Democracy - People argue that electoral democracy abolishes inequalities - But it ignores the fact that powerful groups have influence on the government aside from the election Civil Society Organizations - Not aware for the needs of industrialization - Much better at advocating for social policies Conclusion - Their needs to be alliances built across the board, to believe that inequalities need to be gotten rid of - Support from more privileged groups - For example the people of South Korea had been on board with creating social policies - There’s no quick fix, it takes time - The crucial importance of strategizing - Building public support Professor Albert Berry Focus mostly on the economic side compared to professor Teichman - Docile 10 percent of the population, top docile or lower etc… - Inequality of income - The typical developing country has a high level of inequality - Inequality tends to stay at the level that it starts, it doesn’t go up or down fast, and it can go up faster than it can go down. An example would be China Relationship between inequality, poverty and average income - The rate of poverty can be collected from these factors - High inequality has higher poverty, more income is distributed at the top - A country can lower its poverty by growth - Or by diminishing inequality - Take from the rich and give to the poor - Most development has been based on growth but not income increase Why is inequality so high in developing countries? - Low income countries are basically agriculture countries - High income countries have extremely low levels of work in the agriculture industry - Low income countries spend most money on their food, while high income economies spend a lot less on food - What determines the level of inequality, in a country that is mainly agriculture? o Inequality in the distribution of land, a few people monopolizing o The same group stays at the top, the big farmers continue to prosper and educate their children, keeping the rich richer and educated and keeping this away from the poor - Taiwan is a country that excelled from a agricultural state, through equal education and distribution - Income is all similar, not to many rich, or poor most people are generally in the middle Economic factors that contribute to inequality - Human capital, the skills that people have - Distribution of assets - Bias’ in the system, the way the market works, one person gets more for the same skills then another - Leads to inequality within income _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tutorial 40 Multiple Choice (10 from each themes we’ve covered) Discussion Questions: 1.) Why should we consider economic growth and redistributive policies in order to reduce poverty? Top percentage of elites own majority of the wealth, so even though GDP may be high in most cases of developing countries this still could lead to high poverty rates. When using both together you reduce the gap between the rich and poor and reduce poverty. - Economic Growth? - GDP? The gross domestic products divided by the total population - What is redistributive policy? o Healthcare, education, disability, welfare programs - Refer to Albert Barry’s lecture from last week. - To get full marks explain more than one issue or more than one point (Example explain how economic growth is measured (GDP) what it is etc… as well) 2.) In order to address economic inequality you need to address power inequalities Challenges - Not enough education - Power inequality is supported by the government, and controlled by the elites o Sometimes the elites are the government or the elites strongly influence the government o Invisible / hidden power o Corruption - Citizens do not have a voice which makes it harder for any social change - Economic growth through liberalization policies o Elites will want policies that make it easier for them to run their businesses through these policies (Lower tariffs, free trade, less government interaction and privatization) - Lack of social upwards mobility - Elites support and fund the people in power - Outside aid would refer to foreign international corporations such as the world bank, IMF, IDF which help by financing and lending money Strategies / Tactics - Public advocacy: Revealing hidden power, creating awareness (Social and alternate media) social media, news etc… - Social Movements: General Public (Grass roots NGO’s) o You start from the bottom up - Support from more privileged groups (Celebrities, middle class, small medium enterprises/businesses for social movements) - You need a political coalition, bringing these people together can benefit through voting. Their number one issue should be reducing poverty o These parties need to implement policies that benefit employment especially towards the smaller businesses (Grants) o Taxation on foreign goods and taxation on income so the poor pay less and the rich pay more taxes (Redistribution in a way) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Week 7 Professor Gita Sen Health and Human rights in post 2015 History from the 70’s - During the early 70’s the World Bank were the good guys, while IMF was the organization twisting countries arms and exploiting them in a sense o For example Jamaica had 2 American businesses within it (Aluminum production) who were giving very low prices for resources, when Jamaica spoke up the IMF put their wrath down towards them - During the 70’s the economy was changing, in a rapid way - When we think about human rights today we think about torture, violence etc... - Human rights has a great deal to do with the nuts and bolts of development itself - Health has a strong relationship between human rights and development - 70’s a time of hope for development - The IMF had wall street investors as their president, people who had no idea about development - Speaks about new school? Where did human rights term come from? - Lost decade for development (70’s) - Financial tightening - Hallowing out of the state so that govt. capacity to implement human rights policies became difficult - The capacity to manage and plan all of these was reduced through loss and reduction of money - Infant mortalities started to decrease - Maternal mortality rates sky rocketed - Stayed that way for years as a consequence for the adjustment programs - HIV started to come about - SAP’s called for privatization of things as health care which made it really hard for people to obtain health care - World Bank SAP’s was criticized by many organizations - You don’t have a right to healthcare just adequate standard of health and well-being. - Conference in 78 said that health is a fundamental human right - Many people don’t see the relationship between health and human rights as a concerning issue o Except the woman’s movement o Changed how we think of human rights on the context of development o 1993 International Conference of Human Rights Vienna, for the first time woman’s rights were explicitly recognized as human rights o The conference labeled men and women as equals, but defined some qualities of the differences between men and women - Equality between men and women is in the preamble of human rights but not in the operation (Preamble is just fancy good words not actual implementation) - Most violence against women apart from what happens through conflict Is not from the state but by other people - Human rights were above the state, the state in relation to people - These violations of human rights were perpetrated by other people not from the state - In the year after Vienna, came the famous conference in Cairo took Vienna two steps further, changed the paradigm of thinking about population from population control to human rights o Said that the most important thing we should look at is the sexual and reproductive rights of all people o Human rights are either obtained through day to day life or… o Not only in the context of states but families, and societies etc. - In south asia girls had much worse nutritional status than their brothers cause they were fed last - Human rights shifted from state to families and more intimate levels Beijing Conference - Expanded from reproduction, to daily realm to sexuality - Women have the right to experience sexuality in a completely freely way - Personal was becoming political at the highest level and sense - Its different to speak about human rights in the context of the state compared to the context of the family home - People view it to uphold cultural norm aside from human rights - Putin relies on the Russian catholic orthodox church, which is why he is against homophobia Story of the future: - Millennium declaration goals o Kinds of changes that would happen throughout the millennium o Over 25Billion dollars that goes towards health aid every year o Examples: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has led to some advances (Under child 5 mortality in 1990 was around 12Million which has fallen to 7Million by 2010) - Huge inequalities in health o In India If you’re born in Karalla you have around a 15 year health advantage over a health born in a northern state, across countries the inequality of health is huge - NCD’s growing in low and middle income families - The call for universal health coverage has been called for - Countries like Thailand have a universal health care program at quite a low cost - Brazil, Mexico etc. are showing the possibilities of growing health, and universal health care _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Week 8 What is health? - Health as the absence of disease and infirmity - We can be healthy if we make right choices (Started in the 90’s) o Shifts responsibility from something that the state governs, now its responsibility from the state - This definition is very common in western neo-liberal thought - We are told to just eat healthy, don’t smoke, exercise etc. and we’ll be fine - Is it really just a matter of choice? What about people in Sub-Saharan Africa who are deprived of the opportunities to do these things - This definition doesn’t even consider people of developing nations A Social Definition of Health - “Health Is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease infirmity” - Brought out when the World Health Organization was formed - What about spiritual health and well
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