ch6__

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Department
International Development Studies
Course
IDSB04H3
Professor
Guerra Salazar, Rene
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6: Epidemiologic Profiles of Global Health and Disease Public Health Epidemiologic Terms o Analytic study, census, communicable disease, death rates, birth rates, , exposure, fertility rate, incidence, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), life expectancy, maternal death, MSM (men who have sex with men), notifiable disease, population pyramid, standardization, stratification, trend o Adjustment a summarizing procedure for a statistical measure in which the effects of compositional differences are adjusted o Case fatality (# of deaths from a disease # of diagnosed cases of that disease) x 100 o Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) a measure of burden of disease on a population and effectiveness of interventions Leading causes of morbidity and mortality o Coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer and stroke are the leading causes of death CHD is found in both high and low-income countries o Denmark (high-incomehighly redistributive) has a high life expectancy (78yrs), low child and IMR (5deaths1000births), but high mortality rate from cancer and leading causes of death (l.o.c.d) due to heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease and cancer o Egypt (middle-incomepartially redistributive) has lower life expectancy (68yrs), higher child IMR (25 to 35deaths1,000) than Denmark and l.o.c.d from heart disease, stroke, and hypertension o Nigeria (low-incomemarginally redistributive) has life expectancy (46yrs) IMR = 100deaths1000births (15 children die before 5yrs), l.o.c.d HIVAIDS, malaria, measles and TB 50% of deaths due to communicable disease o In 1990, communicable disease caused 59% of death and disability among the world poorest 20%...[among the rich] non-communicable diseases caused 85% of death and disability (249). The Coming Plagues: Non-communicable Disease o Communicable diseases causes high DALY rates in low-income countries but non- communicable diseases are expected to exceed communicable disease in all income groups by 2015 o Though changing risk factors can reduce the death by non-communicable diseases, large- scale intervention can be taken (e.g. reducing salt in processed food, taxing tobacco products, and increasing disease screening and disease-control measures) o Prevention: Primary prevention prevention of exposure or infection and promotion of good health (e.g. immunizations, pap smears, condom use, diet and exercise) Secondary prevention early detection (e.g. screening, checking bp, blood tests, x-rays, physical exams, etc) Tertiary prevention disease management Health in infants and children o With improved sanitation, maternal and infant nutrition, vaccination and primary health care interventions globally IMR has decreased but IMR is still a concern as is seen with child deaths (b4 5yrs) in poorest populations 2 to 3 times more likely than www.notesolution.com
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