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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04 Oct 12 (Week 5, lecture 5) Table 6-1 Incidence- rate if new cases if disease per year Prevalence- overall rate of disease per year Duration- length of time illnessdisease lasts Case-fatality- percent of deaths among all people with a particular disease Disability- physicalmental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity (movement, work, study, personalhousehold tasks) Risk factor- individualized activity or condition that may increase chance of developing the disease. The demographic transition (box 2-2 in chapter 2) Virtually all societies have gone through a transition from; High mortality, high fertility To Low mortality, o}]o]; Z}M -stage 1: high birth rate and high, but fluctuating death rate -stage 2: declining death rates, and continuing high birth rates -stage 3: declining birth and death rates -stage 4: low death rates, and low, but fluctuating birth rates Malthus and Marx -thomas R Malthus, an essay on the principle of population (1798): Population incrases geometrically, subsistence, arithmetically (much slower). Poverty is the result unless there is moral restraint (less sexprocreation). His theory was contested because of new agricultural technologies that can increase production of crops. -Karl Marx, Das Kapital (1867): each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction. Feudalism, where people were tied to the land, and the more offspring the family hand enabled more harvesting of that land. In industrial society, cost of raising each additional child was really high, and prohibitions of child labour leads to lower corresponding fertility rate. Possible explanations for lower fertility (box 2-2) -shift from subsistence agriculture to factory means smaller family size needed. Did not need more people for manual labour on farms. -higher marginal cost of extra children in urban settingdecline of multi-family households (extended family live together is not as much as before). -more women educated and in paid labour force -development of social security systems: parents no longer dependent on children to take care of them in old age. -long workdaysshift work means less leisure time. -contraceptive technologiesbirth spacing. Condoms invented in 1840 with mass balkanization or rubber. -preference, economic conditions. Abdel Omran & the Epidemiologic transition (Box 2-4) -long term shifts in overall mortality rates and patters of disease -as infectious diseases recede (and life expectancy increases), they are replaced by degenerative and so- called manmade diseases. -Stages of transition
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