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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Lecture5- C H6E pidemiologicprofilesof Global Health andDisease October-12-10 1:12PM TheDemographicTransition (Ch2-0 box2-2) - Virtuallyall societieshavegonethrough atransition fromhmortality, highfertilityto lowmortality, lowfertility Stage1: high birthrate, highbut fluctuatingdeathrates Stage2: decliningdeath ratesandcontinuinghighbirth rates Stage3: decliningbirth and deathrate Stage4: low deathratesandlow but fluctuatingbirth rates Two social philosophers: - ThomasR. Malthus: an essayon theprinciplesof population(1798): Populationincreasesgeometrically;subsistence, arithmetically.Povertyistheresult unless there ismoral restraint - Karl Marx, DasKapital (1867): Each modeof production hasitscorrespondingmodeof reproduction Themoreoffspringafamilyhad, the moreproduct it willproduce Supportedyoungchildlabour PossibleExplanationsfor lowfertility - Shift fromsubsistenceagricultureto factory meanssmaller familysizeneeded - Higher marginal cost of extrachildinurban settingdeclineof multi-familyhouseholds - Morewomeneducated and inpaid labour force - Development of social securitysystems Dont need to dependonyour childto take careof you at your old age - Longworkdaysshift work=less leisuretime - Contraceptivetechnologies birth spacing- intro of condoms AbdelOmran andtheEpidemiologictransition (ch2,box2-4) - Long-termshiftsin overall mortalityratesandpatternsof diseases - Stagesof thetransition Pestilenceandfamine Bigclimateevent Ageof receivingpandemic Ageof degenerativeandhuman madediseases Trauma Industrialaccidents andexposures War Transports Environmental toxins food production Cancer Diabetes Congenital problems Work, stress,andclass inequality Cardiovascular diseases Capitalismand globalization Allof theabove+resurgenceof infectiousdisease - Thenotion of auniform epidemiologictransition onlyreinforcesthestereotypethat peoplein developingcountriesonlydieof infectiousdiseasesandpeopleinindustrializedcountriesonlydieof noncommunicablediseases, andthat thelatter pattern ismoreadvanced thantheformer.
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