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LINA01H3 Final: LINA01H3 Midterm Version A with SolutionsExam

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Extra practice exercises for the midterm
1. Grammar
Now that we have been doing linguistics for over a month, the different concepts of “grammar”
should make more sense than they did at the beginning. Consider the data below:
(In response to the claim that a news commentator predicted a particular incumbent
would keep his senate seat in the upcoming elections)
Speaker A: He don’t know nothing
Speaker B: He doesn’t know anything
a. What is wrong with the following assertions about the data:
Speaker A is using descriptive grammar and Speaker B is using prescriptive
Speaker A is using mental grammar and Speaker B is using prescriptive grammar
Speaker A’s utterance is a performance error
Speaker A’s utterance doesn't make sense and therefore isn't grammatical
Both speakers are using descriptive grammar
A linguist would judge Speaker A as saying a “correct” utterance
b. How would a linguist describe the data?
2. Consider the example sentences given below. For each one, discuss whether or not it is a
grammatical sentence of English. Is this something that you would say? What would a
prescriptivist say about whether this sentence is correct or not? What would a descriptivist
say? Why?
i. Me and Joe are going downtown.
ii. To whom were you hoping to speak?
iii. Sue and Joe is going downtown.

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3. Phonetics. Transcribe the following words in the phonetic alphabet.
(a) Sunny
(b) Banana
(c) (to) reject
(d) Arrive
(e) Thanks
(f) Wednesday
(g) Kitten
(h) Defy
(i) Summary
(j) Secret
(k) Exceed
(l) Difficult
(m) Math
(n) Hopping
(o) Mailbox
(p) Choose
(q) Kissed
(r) Matter
(s) Rider
(t) Hitting
(u) Cow
(v) Upon
4. Reading the IPA. Write following words in regular English spelling.
(a) [huz]
(b) [əpʰlaj]
(c) [beð]
(d) [west]
(e) [tʰawlz]
(f) [ʃɑpt]
(g) [bɑks]
(h) [fez]
(i) [nɑl$dʒ]
(j) [on]
(k) [pʰritʃ$r]
(l) [kʰrɑk]
(m) [strok]
5. Reading the IPA. Write following sentences in regular English spelling.
(a) [ nowm tʃɑmski ɪz ə lɪŋgwɪst hu titʃɪz æt ɛm aj ti ]
(b) [ fənɛtɪks ɪz ðə stʌdi əv spitʃ sawndz ]
(c) [ ɑl spokən læŋgwɪdʒ$z juz sawndz prədust baj ðə ʌpər rɛsprətɔri sɪst$m ]

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Don’t know how to solve phonology problems? Look at p.292-295 of the textbook.
6. Phonology: Korean
Consider the distribution of [s] and [ʃ] in Korean in the following words.
[son] ‘hand’ [ʃihap] ‘game’
[sɔm] ‘sack’ [ʃilsu] ‘mistake’
[sosəl] ‘novel’ [ʃipsam] ‘thirteen’
[sɛk] ‘colour’ [ʃinho] ‘signal’
[us] ‘upper’ [maʃi] ‘delicious’
(a) Do you have evidence from this data that [s] and [ʃ] belong to separate phonemes in Korean?
What evidence is or would be relevant to address this question? (Be explicit.)
(b) In what environments does each occur? Give a list of environments for [s] and [ʃ].
[s] [ʃ]
(c) Distribution: Look carefully at the sounds surrounding [s] and [ʃ]. Can you make a
generalization about where [s] and [ʃ] occur? Finish the following statements.
[ʃ] always occurs ...
[s] occurs …
This 2-part description is a complementary distribution statement.
(d) Based on your complementary distribution statement, which sound ([s] or [ʃ]) represents the
underlying phoneme?
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