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[LINC47H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (33 pages long)


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINC47H3
Professor
Karen Mc Crindle
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
LINC47H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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FRE/LINC47H Pidgin and Creole Languages
1
Session 1 - Class outline
Introduction
Discuss syllabus and expectations
Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (P&C) Reading: Chapter 1, p. 1-13
Where are pidgins and creoles spoken?
Where do we not see creoles being spoken?
Colonizing countries such as Europe, North America and far South
The creoles that are spoken are mostly English based, French based, Spanish
based, African based, Dutch based
Attitudes about pidgins and creoles
Exoticism, can be viewed in either a positive way or a negative way
It’s important for speakers to show that they speak more of the European type
“It’s not a real language”
Often viewed as broken corrupt version or inferior version of European languages
Higher prestige associated with European languages
Creole speakers were seen as savages and uncivilized
Overview of development of P&C
1950s and 60s, few linguists started studying them, and saw them as exotic
languages
They were seen as exciting languages & were a cool thing to study
Linguists weren’t focusing on the evolution of these languages, it was more about
describing it and comparing it to other languages
Attitudes have changed over time, we learned that they are in fact their own
linguistic structures and aren’t broken languages
There is much more respect given to those languages
What is a dialect?
Regional variations of a language
Variety of a language, but it would have the same grammatical structure
What is a language?
Completely separate entity
Can’t be understood through regional borders
Significant differences in grammatical structure
Most creoles are a language
Changing notions of what a language is
Historical notion
Do you speak the language?
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FRE/LINC47H Pidgin and Creole Languages
2
If you speak a language it means you know the rules of that language
Current notion
Based on communication
Our ability to communicate orally and in written form
Until recently, very few creoles have been written down
Creoles were spoken with no written form
What’s different about P&Cs? / Why study them?
Linguistics structures are in tact, they aren’t really that different from the higher
prestige languages
The difference is the process in which they developed, in most cases creoles
developed very rapidly
We study it because it sheds a lot of light on other languages as well
Looking at the specifics helps us look at the greater picture
Terminology:
Patois
Refers to Jamaican creole
Issue: its really a French word coined to mean inferior language
In earlier studies of creoles, linguists referred to creoles as patois
No longer used this term because of the issue
Pidgin
Reduced language that results from extended contact between groups of people
who don’t have a common language
Regulated through trade
Example: Portuguese explores leave Portugal for trades with other west
African countries
Only there for the purpose of trade
When trades is no longer needed, the pidgin goes extinct cause its not needed
anymore
Those with less power tend to take more words from the other language than
those with more power
Pidgins have simplified grammar
Generally no plural form, articles, determiners or modifiers
Fairly stable, used over a period of time, over decades and sometimes hundreds of
years
If pidgin doesn’t die out, it could be expanded
In some situations every aspect of the language is expanded and it
becomes a native language and it becomes a creole (developed
grammatical structure), a fully fledged language
o Example: when two people from different tribes get married,
they’ll need the expanded version of the pidgin to communicate
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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