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LINA01 Midterm: LINA01 DETAILED Midterm Notes

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Eri Takahashi

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LINA01 Lecture 01 Every language is systematic – follows a set of rules Prescriptive rule examples (how people should speak): - Do not end sentence with a preposition (where do you come from vs. from where do you come?) - Do not split an infinitive (to boldly go vs. to go boldly) Descriptive rules (what people actually do/say) - What linguists study - It describes patterns, not telling people how they ought to speak - How to make noun plural in English? Cats (S), dogs/potatoes/photos (Z), churches (IZ) o These are rules you pick up on your own, not conscious Grammatical: - What native speaker would say or judge to be a possible sentence - Native speakers would call the first of both examples grammatical Two main points: 1. Unconscious knowledge of the patterns and rules of our own language 2. Spelling vs. pronunciation (writing vs. speech) Linguist’s goal: build a model of the system that allows speakers to speak and understand their native language / what is it that you know when you know a language? Terminology - Knowledge of language = linguistic competence = mental grammar - Model of mental grammar = linguist’s grammar Linguistic system as (at least) two parts 1. Set of conventional signs 2. Set of ways to combine these signs What is a sign? - Communication (verbal & non-verbal) relies on one thing standing for something else - Two parts o Signifier (the form – physical appearance/pronunciations) o Signified (the meaning) - Two types o Iconic – resembles referent o Symbolic (non-iconic, arbitrary, no direct resemblance) ie. Alien What are the signs of human language? They are arbitrary: - Words - Morphemes Productivity: you can create new forms (words, sentences…), not memorized. You have virtually infinite ability to combine words to phrases to sentences while following rules. Rule-governed properties of language - It doesn’t allow open-ended creativity (Ted poured the glass with water/is raining) - The fact that there are non-sentences show that rules are being violated LINA01 Lecture 02 Something you know w/out being taught: - Homer thinks he is a great cook (can be the same person) - He thinks that Homer is a great cook (cannot be the same person) - While he was reading a book, Homer ate a donut (can be same same) - He ate a donut while Homer was reading a book (cannot be same) If a linguist identifies a sentence as “grammatical” this means: - The sentence conforms to the hypothesized rules of mental grammar “Grammar” - Mental grammar in our heads, shared by speakers of the same language = Linguistic competence - Model of this grammar is called descriptive grammar Variation and Grammaticality - Ex) He might could go o Is this grammatical? Yes, if someone says it then it is grammatical in their dialect - No grammar or dialect is superior to another Linguists goal: build a model of mental grammar Mental Grammar - Claim: Mental Grammar contains a system of rules o Stored in the speakers mind that generates words/sentences of that language - Rules vs. memorizing > too much to “memorize” man Competence: your ability Performance: what you say - not equivalent because we make mistakes sometimes (performance errors) Grammatical: what a native speaker would say Concepts to have under control by now: - What, why and how linguists study what they study - Competence/performance - Unbounded productivity (=creativity) - Mental grammar and rules - Grammaticality Phonetics: the study of the physical properties of speech sounds Phonology: study of mental representation of speech sounds and its rules Articulatory phonetics: how sounds are produced International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): - convention for repping speech sounds - each symbol reps a single sound Production of speech sounds - air supply - sound source (sets air in motion) - filters that modify the sound Consonants - FOUR MAIN features of articulation o Voice (z) or voiceless (s)? (state of glottis) o Where is the obstruction of airflow? Places of articulation  Bilabial (two lips – p, b, m)  Labiodental (bottom lip & teeth – f, v)  Interdental (tongue between teeth – th, the)  Alveolar Ridge/Alveopalatal (closer to the front – t, d, n, s, z)  Palate/Palatal (sh, j, y)  Velum (very back – k, g, ng)  Glottal (throat – high, british butter) o Air flow through the nasal cavity? Nasal/oral  Nasal – Velum is lowered (n, m, ng) all stop, all voiced  Oral – Velum being raised (no air coming out from nose – b) o How is the air obstructed? Manner of articulation  Stops – p, b, t, d  Fricatives (continuous stream of air) – f, v, s, z, th, pleasure  Affricates (stop then continue) – ch, g church judge  Liquids – lateral [l], retroflex [r], flap/tap: butter, water, bitter  Glides – j (yes, you), w (wet, win) - Voiceless bilabial stop = p / Voiced velar nasal stop = ng LINA01 Lecture 03 Use [ ] for pronunciations White – voiceless Consonants: - Produced with either complete closure or narrowing of vocal tract - Some obstruction of the airflow - Voicing (vibrating is voiced), place of articulation, manner of articulation o Check lecture 02 notes for details - Every consonant is a combo of 3 features Vowels: - No major obstruction of vocal tract (so it’s open) o No place or manner of articulation - Air can flow relatively freely through mouth - Most intense and audible sounds in speech - Vocal fold vibration (voicing) is sound source for vowels o No voice/voiceless - Vowel classification o Monophthongs (simple)  Produced with stable vowel quality – hot, hit, met, mat, cut, could o Diphthong  Produced with change in vowel quality  Consist of a vowel and a glide - [j] or [w], hide, loud, boy, say, grow - FOUR features o Height (of tongue) – heehaa  High: heed, hid, whose, hood  Mid: head, hayed, hut, arrest, hoe, boy, law  Low: had, hot, hide, how o Backness – eh oh  Front: heed, hid, hay, head, hat  Central: hut, arrest, hi, how  Back: who’d hood, hoe, boy, hot, law o Tenseness  Tense vowels (greater vocal tract constriction, longer in length)  See, say, sue, toe, soy, cow, sigh, saw  Can occur at the end of the word  Lax (less constriction, shorter)  Sit, set, sat, cut, book, about  Cannot occur at the end of a word, except [shwa] - canad
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