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LINA01 Midterm: LINA01 CONDENSED Midterm Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Eri Takahashi

LINA01 MAIN POINTS Every language is systematic – follows a set of rules Prescriptive rules: how people should speak Descriptive rules: what people actually do/say Grammatical: What a native speaker would say or judge to be a possible sentence. ie. Native speakers think it’s grammatical even if it doesn’t follow prescriptive rules Linguist’s goal: to build a model of the system that allows speakers to speak and understand their native language / what is it that you know when you know a language? Linguistic system as (at least) two parts: 1. Set of conventional signs 2. Set of ways to combine these signs What is a sign? - Communication (verbal & non-verbal) relies on one thing standing for something else o Two parts: 1. Signifier (the form – physical appearance/pronunciations) 2. Signified (the meaning) o Two types 1. Iconic – resembles referent 2. Symbolic (non-iconic, arbitrary, no direct resemblance) ie. Alien - What are the signs of human language? They are arbitrary: Words & Morphemes Productivity: you can create new forms (words, sentences…), not memorized. You have virtually infinite ability to combine words to phrases to sentences while following rules. Rule-governed properties of language - It doesn’t allow open-ended creativity (“Ted poured the glass with water/is raining”) - The fact that there are non-sentences show that rules are being violated You know things without being taught: Homer thinks he is a great cook (can be the same person) He thinks that Homer is a great cook (can’t be same person) Linguist’s grammatical means the sentence conforms to the hypothesized rules of mental grammar “He might could go” This is grammatical: if someone says it then it is grammatical in their dialect No grammar or dialect is superior to another Mental grammar in our heads, shared by speakers of the same language = Linguistic competence Model of this grammar is called descriptive grammar Linguist’s goal: build a model of mental grammar Mental Grammar contains a system of rules: Stored in the speakers mind that generates words/sentences of that language Competence: your ability These are not equivalent b/c we make mistakes sometimes Performance: what you say (ie. performance errors) Articulatory phonetics: how sounds are produced International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): convention for representing speech sounds where each symbol reps a single sound Consonants - Produced with either complete closure or narrowing of vocal tract - Some obstruction of the airflow - Every consonant is a combo of 3 features (Voicing, place of articulation, manner of articulation) FOUR MAIN features of articulation for CONSONANTS 1. Voice (z) or voiceless (s)? (state of glottis) 2. Where is the obstruction of airflow? Places of articulation  Bilabial (two lips – p, b, m)  Labiodental (bottom lip & teeth – f, v)  Interdental (tongue between teeth – th, the)  Alveolar Ridge/Alveopalatal (closer to the front – t, d, n, s, z)  Palate/Palatal (sh, j, y)  Velum (very back – k, g, ng)  Glottal (throat – high, british butter) 3. Air flow through the nasal cavity? Nasal/oral  Nasal – Velum is lowered (n, m, ng) all stop, all voiced  Oral – Velum being raised (no air coming out from nose – b) 4. How is the air obstructed? Manner of articulation  Stops – p, b, t, d  Fricatives (continuous stream of air) – f, v, s, z, th, pleasure  Affricates (stop then continue) – ch, g church judge  Liquids – lateral [l], retroflex [r], flap/tap: butter, water, bitter  Glides – j (yes, you), w (wet, win) Voiceless bilabial stop = p / Voiced velar nasal stop = ng (WHITE = VOICELESS) Vowels - No major obstruction of vocal tract (so it’s open) ie. No place or manner of articulation - Air can flow relatively freely through mouth - Vowel classification o Monophthongs (simple): Produced with stable vowel quality – hot, hit, met, mat, could o Diphthong: Produced with change in vowel quality  Consist of a vowel and a glide - [j] or [w], hide, loud, boy, say, grow FOUR features of VOWELS 1. Height (of tongue) – heehaa High: heed, hid, whose, hood Mid: head, hayed, hut, arrest, hoe, boy, law Low: had, hot, hide, how 2. Backness – eh oh Front: heed, hid, hay, head, hat Central: hut, arrest, hi, how Back: who’d hood, hoe, boy, hot, law 3. Tenseness - Tense vowels (greater vocal tract constriction, longer in length) o See, say, sue, toe, soy, cow, sigh, saw o Can occur at the end of the word - Lax (less constriction, shorter) o Sit, set, sat, cut, book, about o Cannot occur at the end of a word, except [shwa] - canada 4. Rounding (lip rounding) Rounded: whose, hoed, hood, boy, law Unrounded: all other [i] as in beat is high front tense unrounded / [
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