Ch2 Phonetics.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LINA01H3
Professor
Chandan Narayan
Semester
Fall

Description
Phonetics(语音学) the sounds of language 1.Segment(音节):individual speech sound(phone) 2.Sound-producing system: nasal cavity(鼻腔) oral cavity(口腔) pharynx(咽) larynx(喉) vocal fold(声带) vocal tract(声道) glottal(声门) 需要辨别结构图上的部位,很可能结合其他知识来考,比如说 nasal 和其他 stop 不同的部位在哪 里 3.Glottal states: Voiceless voiced whisper(voiceless) murmur(voiced) 4.Sound classes: Vowel(元音): more sonorous ;are produced with relatively little obstruction in the vocal tract; can form nucleus of a syllable Consonant(辅音): voiceless or voiced; less sonorous; are produced with a complete closure or narrowing of the vocal tract; most of them can not form a syllable Glides(滑音,过渡音): a type of sound that shows properties and both consonants and vowels is called a glide; can never form the nucleus of a syllable (Syllable : a peak of sonority surrounded by less sonorous segments.) 5.Places of articulation: Labial(唇音): sound made with closure or near-closure of the lips Labiodental(唇间音) Lnterdental(唇齿音) Alveolar(齿槽音) Alveopalatal(颚龈音): sound produced with the tongue on or near the roof of the mouth Palatal(上颚音): sound produced with the tongue on or near the highest part of the roof of the mouth Velar(舌根音) Glottal(喉音) Uvular(小舌音) Pharyngeal(咽音) 6.Manners of articulation Oral(口腔音) Nasal(鼻腔音): both consonants and vowels can be nasal ,in which case they are generally voiced; Stops(塞音,破裂音): made with complete closure either in the oral cavity or at the glottis; glottal stop spelled with an apostrophe. Nasal stop: complete closure in the mouth and air passing out of the nose. Fricatives(摩擦音): consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth Affricates(赛擦音):consonants which show a slow release of the closure(tongue move slowly away from the place of articulation) Strident and sibilants(咝擦音): noisier fricatives and affricates Aspiration(送气音):since the lag in the onset of vocalic voicing is accompanied by the release of air ,the traditional term for this phenomenon is aspiration. Notice that the sounds that have both aspirated and unaspirated varieties are all voiceless stops. Unreleased stops: in the first column have the stops released into the following vowel but in the second it is quite common not to release word-final stops at all.(marked as [¬]) Liquid(流音) (1) Laterals(旁流音,边音)as laterals are articulated , air escapes through the mouth along the lowered sides of the tongue. Almost all laterals are voiced. Voiceless laterals are marked as [l。] (2) Retroflex 卷舌音(r) voiceless[r。] voiced[r] (3) Flap 闪音(r) Syllabic liquids(重读流音) Syllabic nasal( 重读鼻腔音) they are usually marked with a short diacritic line underneath[fΛnl‚] ;whether a segment is syllabic or not is directly related to how it functions in the syllable.(should be the nucleus ) Glides(滑音): (1)glides are like vowels-semivowels: they are articulated similar to vowels (2)glides are like consonants-semiconsonants: they tend to have slightly narrower constriction than vowels; they typically show up in positions where other consonants show up 8.Classification of consonants: 1.Voicing: the state of the vocal folds 2.Nasality: whether the air is passing through your nose or not 3.Place of articulation: location of constriction in the vocal tract 4.Manner of articulation: degree and kind of construction in the vocal tract 9.Vowels: vowels are sounds produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow relatively freely through the mouth. 10.Vowel quality Monophthongs(单元音)vowel produced with one stable vowel quality Diphthongs(双元音) vowel produced with a change in vowel quality; consist of a vowel and a glide. 11.Tense and lax vowels Tense vowels(紧元音) are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax counterparts; they can occur word-finally (monosyllabic) in English but lax vowels cannot Lax vowels(松元音) 12.Front vowels (1)high front unrounded vowels Tense [i] Lax [І] (2)mid front unrounded vowels Tense [ej] Lax [ε] (3)low front unrounded vowels Tense [æ] 13.Central vowels (1)mid central unrounded vowels Lax [ʌ] [ə] These two vowels are almost identical except that [ə] occurs in an unstressed syllable or before[r] while [ʌ] occurs in a stressed syllable (2)low central unrounded vowels Tense [aj] [aw] 14.Back vowels (1)high back rounded vowels (2)mid front unrounded vowels Tense [ej] Lax [ε] (3)low front unrounded vowels Tense [æ] 13.Central vowels (1)mid central unrounded vowels Lax [ʌ] [ə] These two vowels are almost identical except that [ə] occurs in an unstressed syllable or before[r] while [ʌ] occurs in a stressed syllable (2)low central unrounded vowels Tense [aj] [aw] 14.Back vowels (1)high back rounded vowels relatively freely through the mouth. Tense [u] Lax [U] (2)mid back rounded vowels Tense [oj] [ow] (3)low back unrounded vowels Tense [ɑ] 15.Classifications (1)Vowel quality monophthongs(单元音) diphthongs(双元音) (2)Height of tongue(high,mid,low) (3)Backness/fron
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