Midterm study guide - bilingualism and l2.docx

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Chandan Narayan

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Bilingualism and L2 Why is bilingualism difficult to study? Bilingualism is hard to study because no one case is the same. All children learn at different rates and in different situations. Bilingualism myths Do not speak to a baby in two languages. Chose one or the baby will be confused.  Children can definitely pick up two languages Children that learn two languages will be behind their peers  Bilingual children actually score higher than monolingual children on certain tests Bilingual acquisition vs 1st language acquisition: similarities/differences Similarities Both bilingual and monolingual babies hit most of the same milestones at the same time: i.e. babbling, first words, overall rate of vocabulary. Their morpho-syntactic development is about the same as well, in the dominant language of the bilingual. Differences Vocabulary size  Both l1 and bilingual children have the same size of vocabulary but in the case of the bilingual child, it is split between the two languages. They have the same amount of words however. Delays in bilingual children’s adaptation of some phonological features Bilingual children need to acquire skills of managing two languages  When to use it, for example. The dominant language of the bilingual child may affect the secondary language.  Example, word order Interlanguage Interlanguage (IL) is caused by L1 language of a speaker having an effect on the L2 language. It contains features of both the L1 and L2 languages. While the L2 acquisition is active, the interlanguage is constantly changing. When the interlanguage stops changing, it is said to become fossilized. L2 learners have interlanguage grammar: it’s a system of mental representations of grammar, influenced by both the L1 and the L2 and it contains details of both. L1  Interlanguage grammar  L2 Transfer L2 grammar is recognizable because it has a resemblance to the speaker’s L1 language. The process by which a detail from the L1 grammar is carried over to the IL grammar is called transfer. Phonological transfer: the speaker may use epenthesis to separate consonants or vowels in the L2 language because their L1 language may have a certain order in which words must be constructed. They may also substitute differe
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