Chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 6Semantics the analysis of meaningsemanticsthe study of meaning in human language61 The nature of meaning o semantic relations among wordssynonymyhave the same meaning in some or all contexts ie vacation holidays perfect synonymy is rareantonymyare opposites with respect to some component ie dark light polysemya word has two or more related meanings ie bright a shining b intelligenthomophonya single form has two or more entirely distinct meanings ie light a not heavy b illumination homophones do not have to be spelled identically write and right are homophonespolysemy and homophony create lexical ambiguityrelies on context surrounding words and sentences make the intended meaning clear o semantic relations among sentencesparaphrasehave the same meaning ie a The police chased the burglar b The burglar was chased by the police ndmust have the same truth conditions active sentencesambiguous passive sentences can only have 2 meaningentailmentthe truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of another sentence ie a The park wardens killed the bear b The bear is deadcontradictionif one sentence is true then another sentence must be false ie a Charles is a bachelor b Charles is marriedconnotationthe set of associations that a words use can evoke ie winter snow cold short days icedenotation equating the meaning of a word with the entities to which it refers to ie winterthe season between winter and springextensioncorresponds to the set of entities that it picks out in the world referents intensioninvolves notions like female and human mental imagesPrime Minister of Canada E Stephen Harper I leader of the governing partycomponential analysisan approach to represent a words intension by breaking it down into smaller semantic components using semantic features manboy human human male male adult adult allows us to group entities into natural classes godenotes the entity undergoing changeCirculatory Issue Infinite Regressverb meaning and subcategorizationsee textbook pg 19162 The conceptual system
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