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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 11Second language acquisition SLAbilingualismsimultaneously acquiring two languagesL1Interlanguage GrammarL2 o IL system of mental representations influenced by both the first and the second language and has features of each o transfer the process whereby a feature or rule from a learners first language is carried over to the IL grammar eg L1English L2French ty youtu English does not have the front rounded vowel y the English speaker substitutes the u soundthe role of the first language second language learners speech bears resemblance to the first language French and German speakers both speaking English L2 sound differently o German learning eyes target form ajzresult of syllablefinal obstruent devoicing ajsresult of Canadianraising js when interlanguage grammar stops changing it is said to have fossilizedthe final state o communicative competenceactual proficiency of what is to be acquiredusing the language appropriate to situation and contextgrammatical competence knowledge of the core components of grammar phonetics phonology morphology syntax and semanticstextual competence knowledge of wellformedness above the sentence level rules that string sentences together like for example howeveretcsociolinguistic competence variance according to context informal vs formalillocutionary competence ability to comprehend a speakers intent and to produce sentences that convey a particular intent speakers intent in producing an utteranceillocutionary force 112 Interlanguage grammarsL2 Phonology o segmental phonologyhas to do with the characteristics of phonological segments consonants and vowels o prosodic phonologyhas to do with phonological phenomena that affect more than a single segment syllables and stresssegmental phonologysecond language speech is often accented as the result of phonetic transfer markedness X is more marked than y if the presence of x imples the presence of y but not vice versa
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