Chapter 13.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 13Brain and languageneurolinguisticsthe study of how language is represented and processed in the brain 131 The human braincomposed of nerve cells or neurons that are the basic informationprocessing units o The cerebral cortexhighest level of the brain most pronounced difference of our speciesgrey wrinkled mass that sits like a cap over the rest of the brain65 of the cortex is hidden within its foldso The cerebral hemispheresthe folds have two partssulciareas where the cortex folds ingyriareas where the cortex folds outlongitudinal fissureseparates the left and right cerebral hemispherescorpus callosumbundle of nerve fibres connecting the two hemisphereseach half is responsible for the opposite half of the bodycontralateralLEFTspeech analytic tasks arithmetic RIGHTcomprehension complex patterns recognitionrighthanded individuals have language represented in the left cerebral hemisphere left lateralized for language o The lobes of the cortexlobessubstructures of the cortexcentral sulcus lateral fissuredelineationfrontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobeangular gyrusreading 132 Investigating the brainAutopsy studies o Compares the area of brain damage and the type of disorder the patient displayed o Paul Broca 1860damage called lesion to the frontal lobe inability to speak but could understand speechBrocas areaspeech productionBrocas aphasia impairment of the ability to speak due to brain damageWernickes arealanguage comprehensionImages of the living brain o Computerized axial tomography CT scanninguses a narrow beam of Xrays to create brain images in the form of a series of brain slices o Positron emission tomography PET
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