MDSA01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mirror Stage, Participatory Media, Voyeurism

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11 Aug 2016
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Chapter 6: Cultural Analysis moralitywhat is right/wrong expectation expectation
of what’s right/wrong, ex: rules and format of email changed, texting changed
expectations of email, culturecollective, attitudinal, rhetorical, physical, social,
historical, not born with, taught, Shared set of beliefs and ideals that guide what we do,
Culture does NOT dictate it GUIDES, helps form morality ideologya system of ideas
that unconsciously shapes and constrains both our beliefs and behaviours, customs,
habits, and practices common to a given culture, true for ppl of the culture who believe
that ideology but false for others, limiting, normalized 4 Ways Ideology Structures
our Social World: 1) limitslimit the range of acceptable ideas that a person may
consider within a particular context, promotes/legitimates certain perspectives and
devalue others, right/wrong, true/false, ex: sex (male/female) 2)normalizesIdeology
makes social relations and arrangements between individuals seems normal—it
makes relationships of power appear to be the natural order of things, make things
seem natural as a behaviour, All social relations are inherently relations of power
because all social relations exist in a web of ideologies which award power to certain
roles, ex: employer/ employee, teacher/student 3) privileges some interests over
others, shown through the unequal distribution of power between social actor,
perspectives of the socially powerful groups are most important 4)interpellation
ideology permeates every aspect of a culture, fashioning the limits of knowledge and
influencing power structures at every level of social organization, a process, ideology
controls us, Hailing” –when individuals recognize and respond to an encountered
ideology and allow is to represent them. How Ideologies within a culture become
widespread, common, or dominant: 1)mythRoland Barthe sacred story, the hero,
Reproduces ideology in relation to an object, Preservation of ideologies through the
active retelling of dominant cultural stories, ex: super Mario bro video game (saving
princess) 2) doxacommon sense, blind acceptance, Makes aspects seem natural / or
simply as “the way things are”, knowledge, Pierre Bourdieu 3)hegemonyProcess
where one ideology overthrows other competing ideologies and gains cultural
dominance, Antinio Gramsci, cultural dominance through won consent, ex: paying for
college=hegemonic belief b/c college degree is beneficial to ppl in some way, socially
powerful groups want to have their worldview accepted by members of society as the
universal way of thinking Ideology and class social class Refers to the division of
society into “haves” and “have-nots (lack of wealth)” American dream hard
work=success, failure= shortcoming token Is an individual who has actually fulfilled
the promise of the American Dream and broke through the upper class based on
personal initiative, expectation to a social rule that affirms correctness of ideology
conspicuous consumption can attain happiness/complete by buying material good,
someone who is showy ideology and race exclusion absence of representation,
Process when various ethnicities are symbolically annihilated (removed/destroyed),
“written out of history” by not being represented in the media stereotyping
Constructing misleading representations of minority groups, Process of constructing
misleading and reductionist representation of a minority racial groups often defining
members of the group by a small number of characteristics, +/- stereotypes
assimilation process by which media texts represents minority groups in a positive
light while stripping them of their cultural identities othering the process of
marginalizing minorities by defining them in relationship to the majority (white), which
is assumed to be the natural order (“norm”), difference depiction of subordinate and
racialized “others” as a source of pleasure for US American tourists and consumers,
seeking out non-white culture as a source of pleasure, ex: rap music exoticism the
ideological circulation and consumption of images of foreign lands that romanticize or
mystify other cultures, metal distancing and superiority of white culture over others,
white=norm
Chapter 7: Psychoanalytic Analysis how media texts reflect human mental drives
toward unity, pleasure, and desire, thoughts formed through pleasure, Freud
Scopophilliacreepy feeling of being watched, pleasure of watching from a distant,
pleasure you strive from watching Freud: 1)pleasuremedia, id, Libido the one and
only urge of these instincts is toward satisfaction”, horror movie 2)reality regulates
pleasure principle (curbing of desire according to laws, possibility, social convention),
ego, In media the pleasure can be shown, lines can be crossed, someone acting out
on a pleasure principle we at some point thought of but was not able to perform it
ourselves due to reality, repressionprocess of mentally containing our desires below
conscious recognition (manage pleasure + reality tension) 3)consciousright/wrong,
Acting in opposition to the Id morality, judgement, guilt, superego, observance +
resistance from ourselves, morality, judgement, guilt Jacque Lacan: how does
imaginary work, tracheotomy , all intercept in a way, 1)imaginarysomething that can
be perceived and projected, perceived as a connection, recognition, pre-linguistic,
mirror stage child see itself in mirror and identifies it, 1st step toward ego formation 2)
the symbolic law, We are trapped where social order and language keep us from
knowing or expressing pleasure fully, Lack is the state of human existence, sense of
lack = dominates the way that we understand life + the decisions we make 3) the
realsymbolization, the impossible, made up of things in the world that cannot be
consciously known/ put into words, that which is outside language and resists
symbolization absolutely origins of sexual pleasure: 1) oral stagesatisfy oral needs,
sucking, breastfeeding, comfort 2)anal stagesatisfying anal needs, bowel/bladder,
sadistic 3)phallic stagegenetalia, fantasies:control+ self sufficiency Apparatus theory
Jean Louis Baudry, theater reenacts the stage; reproduces Lacanian mirror stage,
claim: actual environment + machinery of the cinema activates a number of
psychoanalytic desires within spectators Chrsistian Metz: Scopophiliapleasure from
process of looking Voyeurism pleasure in watching a desired object or person from a
distance Fetishismthe psychic structuring of an object or (part of a) person as a
source of sexual pleasure The Male Gaze the media’s frequent positioning of women
as objects coded for strong visual and erotic impact, Watchers experience scopophilic
pleasure by:
1. identifying with the male gaze (of the camera) as it concentrates on the female
character 2. identifying with the male characters who gaze at female characters within
the film Oedipus Complex A developmental moment where drives/desires are
prohibited, granting the child access to the Symbolic order and/or “normal” subjectivity
formation Phallocentricism the privileging of signs or symbols that represent male
power Fantasy a mental representation of conscious or unconscious wish fulfillment
Desire desiring creates fantasy Scenefantasy is not desire itself, but rather a mental
structure that contains the manifestation and achievement of desire
Deferralhe prolonging of lack, Pleasure comes not from getting what we want, but
from the pursuit
Chapter 8: Feminist analysis feminism explores the diverse ways men and women
are socially empowered or disempowered, movement to end sexism, sexist oppression
sexism discrimination based upon person’s sex essentialism there’s a true nature to
people’s gender identity, Natural, biological difference between gender, way to be
man/woman gender culturally constructed differences between men and women,
traits/roles/activities patriarchy/ patriarchal systemsmisogyny, System of power
relations in which women’s interests are subordinated to those of men, serving interest
of man, devalue women, gender power imbalance, pressure on men (show little
emotion, breadwinner, strong ,etc) propaganda “Propaganda is the deliberate,
systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour
to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist,” systematic
attempt of persuasion stereotypemisleading, social oppression & disempowerment of
individuals within the stereotyped group, The Simpsons, female=passive, male=
active, Emma Watson delivered to UN as UN free will ambassador a speech (men to
join movement), Feminism and postfeminism: 1st wave (19th and early 20th
century) women right to vote, not to be viewed as property, reproductive rights 2nd
wave (1970s and 1980s) fought for women’s workplace and reproductive rights,
sexual agency and personal choice, woman’s right over her own body, sexual freedom
3rd wave (199s and beyond) shift from the systematic oppression of all women to the
empowerment of individual women Adonis complex An array of usually secret, but
surprisingly common, body image concerns of boys and men, Dissatisfaction with
one’s musculature, body fat ratio, and size Glass Ceiling Informal, gendered
workplace policies that allow women to progress only so far in promotion
Chapter 9: Queer Theory seeks to disrupt socially constructed systems of human
sexuality, interdisciplinary perspective,celebrate gender fluidity Sexuality individual
emotional, romantic, sexual attraction (based upon other’s gender + sex)
Heteronormativity (heterosexism)term invented in 1991, system of inequality
(derived from homosexual / heterosexual binary), heteronormative practices =
encourage people to identify with heterosexuality (from an early age)heterosexual=
normal, homosexual=abnormal sexual othering stigmatizing homosexualiy as
abnormal = privilege heterosexuality Queer Theoristswork against the normalization
of heterosexuality + not individual heterosexuals Sexual Stereotypes: 1) natural=
heterosexual=high rep in media, homosexuality= low rep in media 2) monogamous=
heterosexuality, promiscuous= homosexuality 3) heterosexuals = definite gender roles,
homosexuals = unclear gender roles Discursive Construction a social construction
made invisible, natural, normal, and “biological” Michel Foucault (1926-1984) Notion
= sexuality functions as a discursive construct, theory of sexuality as discursive
construct that allows us to conceive of a thing called “sexuality” as an innate /
biological quality, Being gay is something we have defined, not a matter of identity,
One could not “be” a homosexual Judith Butler (b.1956) gender only exists because
people act as gendered beingsQueer articulates a radical questioning of social and
cultural norms, notions of gender, reproductive sexuality and the family” (Cherry Smith,
2002, p. 28) “to queer – to make strange, to frustrate, to counteract, to delegitimise, to
camp up heteronormative knowledges and institutions, and the subjectivities and
socialities that are (in)formed by them and that (in)form them” (Nikki Sullivan, 2004, p.
vi) Heteronormativity: queer, faggot, dyke, sissy, pansy, fairy, Jessica expressing
heteronormative view outrage Campbell soup Gender androgyny tends to result in
a threatening, unsettling sense that “things are not quite right” with queer characters
and personalities, Caitlyn Jenner, “Typespresented in the media; aspects are always
obscured; any representation is incomplete and therefore misleading, Homosexuality
often constructed as a “problem” to solve – The Closet”, Queer visibility a paradox,
Increased visibility not always diverse visibility, The Codes of Gender Camp as a
collection of stylistic elements that, as they happen to converge around and/or within a
specific media text, resonate with the experiences of queer individuals living within a
heteronormative social system. Fourth Persona is another projection or impression of
the author indicated though textual features, but it is a projection that only some
audiences will ever notice Gender Performativityis a theory would claim that actions
which appear to be the manifestation of an inner quality called “gender” are in fact the
only force that constitutes the concept of personal gender in the first place
Visibilitythe number of queer characters or personalities present in the media
Textual Wink The individual notices the existence of the fourth persona because they
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