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MDSA01H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: John Dewey, Analytic Philosophy, Soft Media

Media Studies
Course Code
Gray Graffam
Study Guide

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Chapter 1 Medium  ‘middle’, or that which comes between two things
mass media technologies that reach a large, distant, anonymous audience;
print media, motion picture and sound recording (talkies: sync sound and film,
Edison), broadcast ( FCC) media, new media (digital, microchip
microprocessor), large, distant, anonymous
postmodernity historical period characterized by the rise of informationalism,
1960s, convergence, mobility, fragmentation, globalization, simulation
convergence tendency of media to share a common, integrated platform
mobility capacity of an object to be moved from place to place with ease
fragmentationsplintering of audiences into highly specialized taste cultures,
preferences, choice, demassification
globalizationset of forces that threaten the autonomy of the nation-state
simulationthe generation by models of a real without origin or reality
socializationprocess that shapes both what and how we know
theory an ‘optic’ or way of seeing, explaining, and interpreting
critical studies attitude: skeptical/hermeneutics of suspicion, approach:
humanistic, assessment: political, action: social activism
how we learnmediums train our conscious to think a certain way, medium
package message differently, mediated messages (contentinfluence what we
learn, detail, fact ,etc; forminfluence how we learn (way its packaged&
why media? shapes what we learn and how we think, know most things
Chapter 2 Marxisma theory and social and political movement rotted in
the idea that “society is the history of class struggles” German Ideology,
media content=product
Historical materialismcentral premise of Marxism, mode of
production/forces (things that are made, land, tech, natural resources)
determines social relation of production (labor), material world
Baseunderlying economic and material conditions of society,
Superstructurethe social and cultural institutions that make up society
Patterns of media ownership: concentrationownership of an entire
industry by just a few companies. Harder for small companies to survive,
conglomerationcorporate practice of accumulating multiple companies,
takeover, startup, buyouts, parent company controls and owns the host
integrationthe strategic interrelation of subsidiary companies
vertical integrationa corporation that owns and controls various aspects
of production and distribution within a single type of media industry (music
industry everything from labels to records to merchandise)
horizontal integration an ownership pattern in which a corporation
dominates one stage in the production process, across various media
(cross- media owners) example: Disney
multinationalismproduction and distribution of media products on a
global scale, corporate presence in multiple countries
Strategies of profit maximization driven by profit- motive (capitalism),
profit-motivethe continuous desire to increase capital
1.Cross development/ synergy due to horizontal integration, push what
you started to recreate it in many forms as possible, use cross promotion,
exploit for all possible profit
2.Advertising practice of pitching products, broadcast media generate all
revenue from ads. communication aimed at promoting a product or brand
3.Spectacle sensational, scandalous, and shocking dimensions of a
situation (sex/ violence/ glitzy promotion), creates hyper-sensational world ,
create real unreality
4.logic of safetyprofit-maximization strategy grounded in risk avoidance,
spin offs, remakes, repeated exploitation of previous idea= guaranteed
5.joint ventures corporate collaboration aimed at reducing financial risk,
media conglomerates split the high cost production, if failed neither
corporation has to bear financial burden
6. niche marketing the strategic targeting of a particular demographic
group, target specific segment of public, narrowcasting, allow media to
reach untapped market, specialized content can be delivered to remote
7.planned obsolescenceintentional design of a product with a limited
useful life, business strategy, process of becoming out of date, consumer
feels need to purchase newer product/ service
Consequence of Ownership patterns patterns of ownership and
strategies of profit maximization that emerge in relation to it have
significant social and political consequences that affect our lives
1.reduces diversityresults in homogenization of media, media products
are overwhelmingly similar in form and content
2. restricts democracyonly those who own and control the means of
production truly have a ‘public voice,’ filtering, focusing, and structuring of
media conglomerates consistently undermines democratic principles and
3. fuels cultural imperialism the imposition of one’s cultural values on
other cultures, exposure to outside cultural values can have devastating
effects on local cultures
Chapter 3 organizationa system of ordered relationships and
coordinated activities directed towards a specific goal
Structureunderlying framework that shapes an organization over time,
hierarchy: arrangement of job roles & positions based upon authority,
differentiation & specialization: division of a company into departments
& positions which perform specific tasks, formalization degree to which
specific tasks practices must conform to accepted organizational /
professional conventions
Process actual substance built upon structure (underlying framework that
shapes an organization over time) unique behaviours and actions of
organizational members (that are constrained by structure: hierarchy,
differentiation & specialization, formalization)
Communicative Practices: Organization cultures the sets of norms &
customs , artifacts, events, values and assumptions within an organization
Performance expressive displays that carry symbolic significance in a
particular context, includes rituals, sociality (code of etiquette), politics and
enculturation (newcomer learns about the organizations culture)
Narrative stories members tell about their workplace experiences
(personal, collegial, corporate stories)
Textual written electronic documents, what acceptable/not
Managementhow organizational culture is managed by managers;
purpose of enhancing productivity, performance and profit
Technology structures work activities
Conventions describes norms that govern the technical and creative
choices of workers; motivated ( always a purpose behind them), shared,
naturalized, resilient (way it is, way we done it), directive ( unspoken
guidelines for correct and appropriate action)
Objectivity reporting facts in an impartial manner
Broadsidefirst newspaper in 1600
yellow journalismstyle of news that privileges sensationalism and
journalist beatsplaces where news is regularly expected to occur
news agencies that produce and sell stories to other news outlets
punditrynews that is pre-packaged by politicians and their consultants
press releasesstrategically prepared statement for news organizations
informational bias refers to how a story is structured and told and how
this introduces bias
personalization people centered, 1 on 1 interviews, Focus: individuals
(not institutions) / human interest angles / emotional impact
dramatization focas more on sensational, scandalous, shocking details of
a story (heighten audience interest), misinterpretation of reporting
fragmentationignore connection to other stories and the larger context,
isolate stories
authority- disorder a tension between an authority and a disorder, bias
occurs based on the roles that authority and/or disorder seem to be acting
in the news
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