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Final

study guide final exam

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Department
Media Studies
Course Code
MDSA02H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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MDSA02
Final Exam Study Sheet
Final Exam: Tuesday, April 12, 2011, 7:00-9:00 pm, GYM
The exam will be composed of multiple choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blank/short answer (1-2
sentences), paragraph (6-8 sentences). It will cover key concepts and factual information drawn
from course readings and lectures.
Key Concepts:
You should be able to define key concepts, explain their importance, and apply them to specific
situations.
Technological determinism- technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes
that a society’s technology drives the development of its social structure and culture values.
Technology and new technologies are seen as the primary cause of major social and historical
changes at the macro level of social structure and at the micro social level in terms of their
profound social and psychological influences on individuals. (Its believed that information
technology will radically transform society and our ways of thinking)
To what extent is “the medium is the message” an example of technological determinism?
The medium is the messageis an example of technological determinism because, McLuhan argues that
the message is the change of scale or pace or pattern" that a new invention or innovation "introduces into
human affairs." (McLuhan 8) it is not the content or use of the innovation, but the change in inter-personal
dynamics that the innovation brings with it. Therefore, by the “medium being the messageit predicts the
effects technology will have on the micro level of society and in terms of psychological influences on
individuals and their personal perception of the message through the medium.
Eg. the message of a newscast are not the news stories themselves, but a change in the public
attitude towards crime, or the creation of a climate of fear. McLuhan message always tells us to
look beyond the obvious and seek the non-obvious changes or effects that are enabled,
enhanced, accelerated or extended by the new thing.
To what extent is “the singularity” an example of technological determinism?
Progress- The idea of progress is typically seen as the assumption that the human condition will
inevitably improve. A specific ideological view is thatTechnology=Progress and Progress=
Technology”. The idea of progress first emerged in the 18th century when Voltaire saw science
and reason as the driving force behind societal behaviour. Then in the 19th century Darwin
suggested that progress was natural law with humans as the epitome of evolution. Then the 20th
century the idea was challenged that progress through technological means could also lead to
massive destruction. Progress is ultimately inevitable and “has moved, is moving and will move
in a desirable direction(Eder). Whether it be for the better of humans or loss of control of the
environment, progress will occur.
Eg. Print culture is seen as a more advanced and preferable to an oral or scribal tradition.
Electronic media is more advanced than print.
www.notesolution.com
MDSA02
Media- Media are socially realized structures of communication, where structures include both
technological forms and their associated protocols, and where communication is a cultural practice, a
ritualized collocation of different people on the same mental map, sharing or engaged with popular
ontologys of representation. Lisa Gitelman, Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of
Culture
Why is a wrist watch a form of media?
The watch: Lecture 5, February 8 -Profound changes in Understanding Space/Time
• Technological techniques such as the precise measurement of time, number and distance are
keys for manipulation and exploitation.
• Mechanical clocks appeared during the 13th century.
• It brought exact measurement and temporal control to human life, from the medieval tower
clock, to clocks on the mantel, to part of human costime(watch) from the 19th century onward.
• Punctuality then becomes a virture.
• Karl Marx: " The clock is the first automatic machine applied to practical purposes; the whole
theory of production and regualar motion was developed through it."
• Clock as archetype model of all later machines: A model of precision; an early example of the
process of miniaturization.
Marshall McLuhans theorythe medium is the message
The medium is the messageis an example of technological determinism because, McLuhan argues that
the message is the change of scale or pace or pattern" that a new invention or innovation "introduces into
human affairs." (McLuhan 8) it is not the content or use of the innovation, but the change in inter-personal
dynamics that the innovation brings with it. Therefore, by the “medium being the messageit predicts the
effects technology will have on the micro level of society and in terms of psychological influences on
individuals and their personal perception of the message through the medium.
Eg. the message of a newscast are not the news stories themselves, but a change in the public
attitude towards crime, or the creation of a climate of fear. McLuhan message always tells us to
look beyond the obvious and seek the non-obvious changes or effects that are enabled,
enhanced, accelerated or extended by the new thing.
All media are extensions of some human faculty- psychic or physical.
Harold Inniss theory of time-biased and space-biased media; identify examples.
Time- based media are used in societies that are oral and tribal. There leadership often times is
hierarchical however; they can also operate by consensus. Time bound cultures do not rely on written
records instead they preserve their traditions in story, song and myth which is handed down from
generations. They believe memory to be off crucial importance and favour concrete over abstract
forms of thought.
Clay and stone tablets
hand-copied manuscripts on parchment or vellum
oral (based on presence, little tangible remains after the utterance)
heavy/durable
emphasizes control of time
www.notesolution.com
MDSA02
suited to development of architecture and sculpture; favours collection of permanent records
in widely scattered communities
carry messages that last for many generations, but tend to reach limited audiences
favours decentralization and hierarchal institutions, in particular religious control
favours stability, community, tradition and religion
On the other hand, societies that depend on space-binding media such as printed newspapers and
books tend to favour abstract thought and control over space. They have little regard for tradition and
when compared with oral societies, their ways of thinking are apt to be more rational, linear and
impersonal.
Papyrus
Paper
Contemporary media such as radio, television, and mass circulation newspapers
Light, less durable, even ephemeral
Emphasizes control of space
Suited to the administration of wide areas
Favours centralization and less
James Carey’s argument that the telegraph marks the separation between transportation
and communication; marks a fundamental shift in understandings of space and time; and
points to the collapse of the ritual and transmission views of communication.
James Carey :Marked the separation between transportation and communication
Before telegraph, transportation and communication were synonymous; the telegraph (including
earlier line-of-sight optical forms, allowed symbols to move independently of and faster than
transport .Telegraph helped shape a range of business practices.
The great theoretical significance of the technology lay not merely in the separation but also in
the use of the telegraph as both a model of and a mechanism for control of the physical
movement of things, specifically for the railroad. That is the fundamental discovery: not only can
information move independently of and faster than physical entities, but it also can be a
simulation of an control mechanism for what has been left behind. . . Before the use of the
telegraph to control switching, the Boston and Worcester Railroad, for one example, kept horses
every five miles along the line, and they raced up and down the track so that their riders could
warn engineers of impending collisions.
Brought diverse regional centers of buying and selling under a unified price and market system
and the need for the creation of standard time zones
Arbitrage: buying cheap and selling dear by moving good around in space.
The significance of the telegraph does not lie solely in the decline of arbitrage; rather, the
telegraph shifts speculation into another dimension. It shifts speculation form space to time, from
arbitrage to futures. After the telegraph, commodity trading moved from trading between places
www.notesolution.com

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Description
MDSA02 Final Exam Study Sheet Final Exam: Tuesday, April 12, 2011, 7:00-9:00 pm, GYM The exam will be composed of multiple choice, truefalse, fill-in-the-blankshort answer (1-2 sentences), paragraph (6-8 sentences). It will cover key concepts and factual information drawn from course readings and lectures. Key Concepts: You should be able to define key concepts, explain their importance, and apply them to specific situations. Technological determinism- technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a societys technology drives the development of its social structure and culture values. Technology and new technologies are seen as the primary cause of major social and historical changes at the macro level of social structure and at the micro social level in terms of their profound social and psychological influences on individuals. (Its believed that information technology will radically transform society and our ways of thinking) To what extent is the medium is the message an example of technological determinism? The medium is the message is an example of technological determinism because, McLuhan argues that the message is the change of scale or pace or pattern that a new invention or innovation introduces into human affairs. (McLuhan 8) it is not the content or use of the innovation, but the change in inter-personal dynamics that the innovation brings with it. Therefore, by the medium being the message it predicts the effects technology will have on the micro level of society and in terms of psychological influences on individuals and their personal perception of the message through the medium. Eg. the message of a newscast are not the news stories themselves, but a change in the public attitude towards crime, or the creation of a climate of fear. McLuhan message always tells us to look beyond the obvious and seek the non-obvious changes or effects that are enabled, enhanced, accelerated or extended by the new thing. To what extent is the singularity an example of technological determinism? Progress- The idea of progress is typically seen as the assumption that the human condition will inevitably improve. A specific ideological view is that Tecthology=Progress and Progress= Technology. The idea of progress first emerged in the 18 century when Voltaire saw science and reason as the driving force behind societal behaviour. Then in the 19 century Darwin suggested that progress was natural law with humans as the epitome of evolution. Then the 20 th century the idea was challenged that progress through technological means could also lead to massive destruction. Progress is ultimately inevitable and has moved, is moving and will move in a desirable direction(Eder). Whether it be for the better of humans or loss of control of the environment, progress will occur. Eg. Print culture is seen as a more advanced and preferable to an oral or scribal tradition. Electronic media is more advanced than print. www.notesolution.com
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