Terminology 1.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Michael Petit

Media Studies Terminology Chapter 1: Introduction Critical Studies – array of theoretical perspectives – united by their sceptical attitude, humanistic approach, political assessment, and activist orientation Mass Media – communication technologies – potential to reach a large audience in remote locations Medium – indirect channel – information is mediated to us through a medium – Latin “middle” Postmodernity – emerged in 1960's – economic mode of production in Western society – shift: goods-based manufacturing – information-based services Socialization - process: people (individually + collectively) learn + adopt + internalize the prevailing cultural belief's + values + norms Theory – explanatory + interpretive tool – enables + limits understanding of a particular social product, practice, or process under investigation Chapter 2: MarxistAnalysis (Economic) Base – material conditions of society – relations of production: into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life – i.e. Employer-employee work conditions, division of labour, property relations Concentration – organizational state – the ownership + control of an entire industry is dominated by a few companies Conglomeration – corporate practice – accumulating multiple companies through: startups / mergers / buyouts / takeovers Historical Materialism – the material world (natural phenomenon + processes) comes before human thought – the external + concrete + material conditions of social existence determine / ground consciousness – opposed to idealist (ideas determine existence) Integration – ownership pattern – subsidiary companies / branches within a company: strategically interrelated Marxism - society is the history of class struggles Multinationalism – corporate presence in multiple countries – allows for the production + distribution of media products on a global scale Profit-Motive – the continuous desire to increase capital Superstructure – institutions (culture:art+media / religion / education / politics / judicial system) Chapter 3: OrganizationalAnalysis Conventions – norms that govern the technical + creative choices made by workers in the execution of their duties / art / craft Informational Bias – how a story is structured and told – personalization + dramatization + fragmentation + authority – disorder Journalistic Beats – places + institutions – where news is expected to occur (on any given day) – i.e. Police stations + cour houses News – product / commodity – manufactured by news organizations – for maximum profitability NewsAgencies – produce + sell stories to other news providers + non-profit cooperatives – work with large media companies to generate news centrally + distribute it locally Objectivity – reporting of facts in an impartial manor Organizational Culture – set of norms / customs / artifacts / events / values / assumptions that emerge as a consequence of organizational members communicative practices Organizations – system + network of ordered relationships + coordinated activities directed toward specific goals Press Release – prepared written / recorded statements – produced for news organizations – announce something that claims to be newsworthy Professional Culture – set of norms / customs / artifacts / events / values / assumptions that emerge as a consequence of: – formal training (education / apprentices / internships) – membership + participation (conferences / workshops / licences) – recognition (awards + honours) Professionalization – process – individual is transformed (socialized) into an ideal subject (professional) whose behaviours + actions reaffirm ones status as a professional – internalization of professional conventions Punditry – pre-packaged news (by politicians) – promote a favourable image Chapter 4: PragmaticAnalysis Aggressor Effect – exposure to media violence triggers arousal – promotes aggressive behaviour Bystander Effect – desensitization to violence: repeated viewing of media violence leads to a reduction in emotional response to violence in real life – real violence is no longer shocking + become unfazed by it Catharsis Effect – media violence can reduce + alleviate feelings of aggression – can lead to a reduction in read-world violence – outlet: relives viewers of their own violent urges Code of Ethics – self imposed set of rules for conduct Consequences – clear effects of a given regulation on society at large – good consequence: beneficial to society Contingencies – factors a regulation should address – as a result of context and situation – i.e. Social norms + predominant mediums / types of technology present Copyright – granting of exclusive control of a creative work to that works creator – legally award creator power over the use of his work – ensure that individuals will continue to generate innovative products Digital Rights Management (DRM) – software programs – media industries use to control the distribution and use of digital intellectual property (extra level of security) Encryption – process of scrambling important digital messages by software – only those who possess a complementary decoding program can read them Historical Violence – portrayal of of actual historical events of violence Hyper-Real Violence – turns violence into art – combines the look (historical violence) + fee
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