MDSA01 (Introduction To Media Studies): Chapter 1-12 Textbook notes

64 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Ted Petit

Textbook Notes Chapter 1121 Critical Media StudiesHow Do We Know Everything we know is learned in one of two ways Somatically Things we know through direct sensory perception of our environment We know what some things look smell tastesound like because we personally have seen smelled tastedheard themExample I know that marshmallows are chewy because Ive had them beforeThis is known based on first hand unmediated experience Symbolically Things we know through someone or something Example Parent friend teacher radio film and internetVast majority of what we know comes symbolically Medium Symbolic information is mediated came to us from some indirect channel or medium comes between two things Example PersonTVInformationWho Are the Mass Media Communication technologies that have the potential to reach a large audience in remote locations Just because it reaches a large audience doesnt make it a form of mass mediaExample 50 Cent had a concert in front of 50000 people but it isnt mass mediated The audience is there experiencing it they arent remote If this concert was streamed over the internet then it could be considered as mass mediated4 SubCategories 1 Print Media 2 Motion PictureSound Recording 3 BroadcastMedia4 New MediaPrint Media First mass mediumJohannes Gutenberg invented the movabletype printing press in 1450 Birth of mass mediaSocial power these days hinged on literacyownership of printed materials due to pricesAllowed circulation of knowledge across EuropeJamestown USA 1607 First printing pressMostly printed religious tracts Bay Psalm Booknovels Robinson Crusoe thth Explosion in number of households that had newspapers 1920 centuries but declined alongside magazines since 1973Despite declining readership in the newspaper and magazine industries the book publishing industry suggests that Americans are still readingMotion PictureSound Recording st Edisonassistant Dickson created 1 forms of these new mass media since print 1877 Phonographs played recorded sound1892 Kinetoscopes were early motion picture device that showed short silent films in a peepshow fashion to one person at a timeEventually soundvideo were synchedthe first talkies talking pictures were launched The Jazz Singer 1927 was the first oneCheapeasily reproducible format such as magnetic tape 1926 long playing records 1948 CDs 1982 etc fueled profits in the sales sound recordingThis gave sound recording special independent attention from motion picturesrecord industry began to dominate music industryBroadcast Media Media could now be brought to audiences over public airwaysst Freed mass media from transportation for the 1 timeIt was no longer a necessity for physical objects like books magazinesnewspapers Also physically travelling to the media like for films was also no longer necessaryFirst was the radio in the 1890s The first scheduled broadcast was in the 1920sst TV followed shortly after with 1 TV patent by Philo T Farnsworth in 1927CBS launched the first TV schedule in 1941RadioTV shared overlapping history and man of TVs early stars came from radioOn average homes are equipped with 8 radios25 TV sets 2004Confusion over how to categorise cable televisionsatellite radioSome content couldnt be broadcasted over public airways without paying monthly feeThey lie somewhere between broadcast medianew media New Media TV photography ebooks internet websites online games phones with internet accessBegins with the development of microprocessorcomputer chipst 1 microprocessor 1971 was the 4bit Intel 4004 executing 60000 calcssecond By 1995 Intels Pentium Pro could execute 250 million calcssecondComputers were developed initially as a communication technology for the US Department of Defense but gained public interest as connectivity potential for sending emails increasedWorld Wide Web popularized the internet in 1990s Living in Postmodernity The present era has been described as the information age space agepostmodernity the historical epoch that began to emerge in the 1960s with shift from goodbased manufacturing to informationbased services The mass production of standardized durable goods automobiles toasters etc has given way to reproduction of highly customizable soft goods such as iTunes libraries and cell plans5 key trends animate the mass media in postmodernity 1 Convergence 2 Mobility 3 Fragmentation 4 Globalization 5 Simulation ConvergenceWhen formerly diverse media then shares a common integrated platformErasing the boundaries between different types of mass mediaBefore media convergence could become a reality it had to overcome 2 boundaries st 1 Analog signal noises TVRadio caused message distortiondecay over long distancesSolved Through digitization which reduces distortion by relying on bits rather than a continuous signal nd 2 Bandwidth limitations prevented large data packets Example video from being transmitted quicklyeasily over a communication channelSolved Improved datacompression techniquesbandwidth expansionsOvercoming these has accelerated convergence Mobility Development of powerful microprocessorswireless tech allow us to take media anywhereMass media becomes more mobile Example We can read a book listen to songs read newswatch movies on laptopscell phones because they allow us to carry these around with us Fragmentation A tremendous proliferation of media content if not ownership has led to specializationniche marketing tailoring to individual tastesAlvin Toffler demassification of media bas been underway since early 1970sDecreasing production costs have reduced the necessity for standardizationResult dramatic increase in media channelsa fragmentation of output that caters to the increasing diversity of the consuming publicExample Generalpurpose magazines dominated the magazine industry in the 1960s but were replaced by 4000 special interest magazines by 1980The internet is the most fragmented medium Globalization a complex set of social political and economic processes in which the physical boundariesstructural policies that previously reinforced the autonomy of the nation state are collapsing in favor of instantaneous and flexible worldwide solutionsEven with increasing fragmentation by specialized interests the world has become more globalCreates opportunities for multinational corporations ownerscontrollers of mass media to bring their cultural products to distant local marketsGoal is to profit from untapped global marketsRaises fears about cultural imperialism imposition of one set of cultural values on other culturesHowever the process is bidirectional because these local markets influence the products and thinking of the very companies that target themThis leads to concern that cultural difference is being eradicated in favor of one large hybridized cultureSimulation BaudrillardSimulation is generation by models of a real without origin or reality hyperreal He believes that Western societies like America are increasingly characterized by simulation because the realthe imaginary have imploded Simulation suggests that the media no longer represents if they ever did our social world they construct a realerthanreal space that is our social world Example media producingreproducing images of love violence family that no longer refer to some external realityWhy Study Media Because of their sheer ubiquity its everywhere The further back in history you look that less central mass media are to social life Other social institutions like family church and schoolToday these social institutions have been subsumed bylargely filtered through mass media Socialization The process by which personsboth individuallycollectivelylearn adopt and internalize the prevailing cultural beliefs valuesnorms of a societyBecause all social institutions are mediators they all contribute to socializationStories are inevitably filtered through the symbols perspective of the story tellerAs societys main storytellers the mass media filter virtually every aspect of our world shaping both what we learn and how we learn What we learn Mediated messages are comprised of content and form The content influences what we learn form influences how we learnBoth are central to the socializing function of mass media but content is given more attentionContent Informational component of a message specific details facts ideas and opinions communication through mass mediaAudience are often consciously aware of the content of mediated messagesExample We know that when we watch the evening news we are learning specifics about our world A building was bombed A celeb cheated on her husband EtcContent doesnt have to have usevalue or truthvalue to be classified as informationalInformation need only be meaningful to count as informationContent matters for several reasons1 The mass media largely determines what we talkcare about by establishing which social issues are considered importantwhich are considered unimportant They choose to includecover some topics and excludeignore others2 Content should have a diversity of views and opinions to increase the scope of public debate and deliberation on matters of social importance Even unpopular views are essential as they reframe issues in fresh productive waysThe mass media selects the perspectives that we see these issues from3 Media content is communication using symbols All symbols are selective so this makes media content biasedThe language and images symbols used to informeducateentertain us convey selective attitudes and beliefsSummary Basically the content of mass media socializes us 1 to care about some issues and
More Less

Related notes for MDSA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.