chapter 1&2 For Media Studies.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Michael Petit

Midterm Exam Study Guide 1. Critical Media Studies How do we know? Everything we know is learned in one of two ways 1) Somatically – These are the things we know through direct sensory perception of our environment . Ex) we know what some things look, smell, feel, sound, or taste like because we personally have seen, smelled, felt, heard, or tasted them. 2) Symbolically – These are the things we know through someone or something. Ex) parent, friend, teacher, museum, textbook, photograph, radio, film, television, or the internet Medium – middle; that which comes between two things Ex) television and the Discovery channel Who are the Mass media? Mass Media – communication technologies that have the potential to reach a large audience in remote location Print Media German printer Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable-type printing press in 1450 *(Mass Media was BORN)  Made it relatively cheap after the invention  Much info. Can be recorded  Press allowed for an unprecedented circulation of knowledge to far-flung cities across Europe During the 19 and 20 centuries, the newspaper industry experienced explosive growth. Since 1973, however, newspaper circulation has steadily declined. Motion Picture and Sound Recording *Thomas Edison and his assistant, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, created what would later develop into the first two new mass media since print. * Edison’s invention – 1 , Phonograph (Device that played recorded sound, in 1877) nd 2 , Kinetoscope (early motion picture device that showed short, silent, films in peep-show fashion to individual viewers, in 1892) Broadcast media - Audience physically having to travel to the media as in the case of film, media could now directly be brought to audiences over public airwaves. *Census data (from 2004) indicate that 99% of US households have a radio & 98.2% have a television set. *Suffice to say, Americans spend a significant amount of time with radio & television New media “New media are the cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and circulation” – Lev Manovich New media; digital television, film, photography, and e-books, internet *The history of new media begins with the development of the microprocessor or computer chip. – Introduced in 1971, the world’s first commercial microprocessor, the 4-bit Intel 4004, executed about 60,000 calculations a second. *The internet began to catch the public’s attention in 1970s when emails became evident. *In the early 1990s, that popularized the internet by transforming it into the hypertextual platform we know now as the World Wide Web. Living in Postmodernity Postmodernity – describes the historical epoch that began to emerge in the 1960s as the economic mode of production in most Western societies slowly shifted from goods-based manufacturing to information-based services. Ex) iTunes libraries and cell phone plans Convergence Increasingly, contemporary media reflect convergence, the tendency of formerly diverse media to share a common, integrated platform. stfore media convergence could become a reality, it had to overcome two major obstacles: 1 ndthe noise associated with analog signals (solved through digitization) 2 , bandwidth limitations prevented large data packets (have made possible the real-time transmission of large data packets over communication channels) Mobility Today, instead of going to media, media can come to or go with us virtually anywhere Ex) working on your laptop or listening to your iTunes anywhere you want Fragmentation
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