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Media Studies
Michael Petit

 Access channels: in cable television, a tier of nonbroadcast channel dedicated to local education, government, and the public  Action games: games emphasizing combat-type situations that ask players to test their reflexes and to punch, slash, shoot, or throw as strategically and acutely as possible so as to strategically make their way through a series of levels  Adult contemporary (AC): one of the oldest and most popular radio music formats, typically featuring a mix of news, talk, oldies, and soft rock  Adventure games: games requiring players to interact with individual characters and a sometimes hostile environment in order to solve puzzles  Advergames: video games created for purely promotional purposes  Affiliate stations: a radio or TV station that, though independently owned, signs a contract to be part of a network exchange, the network reserves time slots, which it sells to national advertisers  Album-oriented rock (AOR): the radio music format that features album cuts from mainstream rock bands  AM: amplitudes modulation; a type of radio and sound transmission that stresses the volume or height of radio waves  Analog: in television, standard broadcast signals made of radio waves(replaced by digital standards in 2009)  Anthology dramas: s popular form of early TV programming that brought live dramatic theater to television; influenced by stage plays, anthologies offered new teleplays, casts, directors, writers, and sets from week to week  Arcades: establishments that gather multiple coin-operated games together and can be considered newer versions of the penny arcade  ARPAnet: the original internet, designed by the US Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA)  Avatar: a graphic interactive “character” situated within the world of a game, such as World of Warcraft or Second Life  Basic cable: in cable programming, a tier of channels composed of local broadcast signals, nonbroadcast access channels(for local government, education, and general public use), a few regional PBS stations, and a variety of cable channels downlinked from communication satellite  Big Five: from the late 1920s, through the late 1940s, the major movie studios that were vertically integrated and that dominated the industry. The Big Five = Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox, and RKO.  Big Six: the six major Hollywood studios that currently rule the commercial film business: Warner Brothers, Paramount, Twentieth Century Fox, Universal, Columbia Pictures, and Disney  Block booking: an early tactic of movie studios to control exhibition, involving pressuring theater operators to accept marginal films with no stars in order to get access to films with the most popular stars  Blockbuster: the type of big-budget special effects films that typically have summer or holiday release dates, heavy promotion, and lucrative merchandising tie-ins  Blogs: sites that contain articles in reverse chronological journal-like form, often with reader comments and links to other articles on the Web  Broadband: data transmission over a fiber-optic cable –a signaling method that handles a wide range of frequencies  Broadcasting: the transmission of radio waves or TV signals to a broad public audience  Browsers: information-search services, such as Microsoft’s internet Explorer, Firefox, and Google Chrome, that offer detailed organizational maps to the Internet  Cartridge: early physical form of video games that were played on consoles manufactured by companies like Nintendo, Sega, and Atari  Casual games: games that have very simple rules and are usually quick to play, such as Tetris and Angry Bird  CATV(Community Antenna TV): an early cable system that originated where mountains or tall building blocked TV signals; because of early technical and regulatory limits, CATV contained only 12 channels  Celluloid: a transparent and pliable film that can hold a coating of chemicals sensitive to light  Chapter shows: in television production, any situation comedy or dramatic program whose narrative structure includes self-contained stories that feature a problem, a series of conflicts, and a resolution from week to week  Cinema verite: French term for “truth film”, a documentary style that records fragments of everyday life unobtrusively; it often features a rough, grainy look and shaky, handheld camera work  Collective intelligence: the sharing of knowledge and ideas, particularly in the world of gaming  Common carriers: a communication or transportation business, such as a phone company or a taxi service, that is required by law to offer service on a first-come, first- serve basis to whoever can pay the rate, such companies do not get involved in content  Communications Act of 1934: the far-reaching act that established the Federal communication commission and the federal regulatory structure for US broadcasting  Consensus narratives: cultural products that become popular and command wide attention, providing shared cultural experiences  Consoles: devices people use specifically to play video games  Contemporary hit radio (CHR): originally called “Top 40 radio”, this radio format encompasses everything from hip-hop to children’s songs; it appeals to many teens and young adults  Content communities: online communities that exist for the sharing of all types of content from text to photos and video  Cookies: information profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by a Web browser and stored on the user’s own computer hard drive  Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB): a private, nonprofit corporation created by Congress in 1967 to funnel federal funds to nonprofit radio and public televisions  Country: claiming the largest number of radio stations in the US, this radio format includes such subdivisions as old-time, progressive, country-rock, western swing, and country-gospel  Data mining: the unethical gathering of data by online purveyors of content and merchandise  Deficit financing: in television, the process whereby a TV production company leases its programs to a network for a license fee that is actually less than the cost of production; the company hopes to recoup this loss later in return syndication  Development: the process of designing, coding, scoring, and testing a game  Digital: in television, the type of signals that are transmitted as binary code  Digital communication: images, texts, and sounds that use pulses of electric current or flashes of laser light and are converted into electronic signals represented as varied combinations of binary numbers, ones and zeroes; these signals are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of a TV picture, a magazine article, or a telephone voice  Digital divide: the socioeconomic disparity between those who do and those who so not have access to digital technology and media, such as the Internet  Digital video: the production format that is replacing celluloid film and revolutionizing filmmaking because the cameras are more portable and production costs are much less expensive  Direct broadcast satellite(DBS): a satellite-based service that for a monthly fee downlinks hundreds of satellite channels and services; DBS began distributing video programming directly to households in 1994  Documentary: a movie or TV news genre that documents reality by recording actual characters and settings  Domestic comedy: a TV hybrid of the sitcom in which characters and settings are usually more important than complicated situations; it generally features a domestic problem or work issue that characters have to solve  Drive time: in radio programming, the periods between 6-10am and 4-7 pm, when people are commuting to and from work or school; these periods constitute the largest listening audiences of the day  E-commerce: electronic commerce, or commercial activity, on the Web  Electromagnetic waves: invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light; electricity, magnetism, light, broadcast signals, and heat are part of such waves, which radiate in space at the speed of light; electricity, magnetism, light, broadcast signals, and heat are part of such waves, which radiate in space at the speed of light, about 186000 miles per second  Electronic publishers: communication business, such as broadcasters or cable TV companies, that are entitled to choose what channels or content to carry  E-mail: electronic mail messages sent over the Internet developed by computer engineer Ray Tomlinson in 1971  Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB): a self-regulating organization that assigns ratings to games based on 6 categories: EC[Early Childhood], E[every-one], E 10+, T[teens], M 17+, and AO[adults only 18+]  Episodic series: a narrative form well suited to television because the main characters appear every week, sets and locales remain the same, and technical crews stay with the program; episodic series feature new adventures each week, but a handful of characters emerge with whom viewers can regularly identify  Evergreens: in TV syndication, popular, lucrative, and enduring network reruns, such as the Andy Griffith Show or I Love Lucy  Federal Communications Commission (FCC): an independent US government agency charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, cable, and the Internet  Federal Radio Commission (FRC): a body established in 1927 to oversee radio licenses and negotiate channel problems  Fiber-optic cable: thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting along cable wires thousands of messages converted to shooting pulses of light; these bundles of fiber can carry broadcast channels, telephone signals, and all sorts of digital codes  Fin-syn(Financial Internet and Syndication Rules): FCC rules that prohibited the major networks from running their own syndication companies or from charging production companies additional fees after shows had completed their prime-time runs; most fin-syn rules were rescinded in the mid-1990s  First –person shooter(FPS): games that allow players to feel like they are actually holding a weapon and to feel physically immersed in the drama  First-run syndication: in television, the process whereby new programs are specifically produced for sale in syndication markets rather than for network television  FM: frequency modulation, a type of radio and sound transmission that offers static- less reception and greater fidelity and clarity than AM radio by accentuating the pitch or distance between radio waves  Format radio: the concept of radio stations developing and playing specific styles geared to listeners’ age, race, or gender; in format radio, management, rather than deejays, controls programming choices  Fourth screens: technologies like smartphones, iPods, iPads, and mobile TV devices that are forcing major changes in consumer viewing habits and media content creation  Fringe time: in television, the time slot either immediately before the evening’s prime- time schedule(early fringe) or immediately following the local evening news or the network’s late-night talk shows(late fringe)  Gameplay: the way in which a game’s rules, rather than the graphics, sound, and narrative style, structure how players interact with a game  Genre: a narrative category in which conventions regarding similar characters, scenes, structures, and themes recur in combination  Guilds or clans: in gaming, coordinated, organized team-like groups that can wither be small and easygoing or large and demanding  HD radio: a digital technology that enables AM and FM radio broadcasters to multicast 2 or 3 additional compressed digital signals within their traditional analog frequency  Hollywood Ten: the 9 screenwriters and one film director subpoenaed by the House Un0American Activities Committee who were sent to prison in the late 1940s for refusing to disclose their memberships or to identify communist sympathizers  HTML (hypertext markup language): the written code that creates Web pages and links; a language all computers can read  Indies: independent music and film production houses that work outside industry oligopolies; they often produce less mainstream music and film  In-game advertisements: integrated, oftentimes subtle advertisements, such as billboards, logos, or storefronts in a game, that can wither be static or dynamic  Instant messaging: a Web feature that enables users to chat with buddies in real time via pop-op windows assigned to each conversation  Intellectual properties: in gaming, the stories, characters, personalities, and music that require licensing agreements  Internet: the vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite systems designed to link and carry computer information worldwide.  Internet radio: online radio stations that wither “stream” simulcast versions of on-air radio broadcasts over the Web or are created exclusively for the Internet  Internet service provider(ISP): a company that provides Internet access to homes and business for a fee  Kinescope: before the days of videotape, a 1950s technique for preserving television broadcasts by using a film camera to record a live TV show off a studio monitor  Kinetograph: an early movie camera developed by Thomas Edison’s assistant in the 1890s  Kinetoscope: an early film projection system that served as a kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving o
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