MDSB03 Final Review
Keywords and concepts Define and offer the Significance.
Raymond Williams, attributes broader cultural meaning to things, as such brands are often presented as
having magical or religious implications. And because in advertising the successful consumer or a brand is
the beneficiary of these different magic powers, brands also construct different images of human agency.
Brand is simply a story attached to a manufactured object. The brand gathers its power, because it
concentrates what is called in adspeak “ownership”. Industrial revolution as the result of our materialism,
not the cause of it and we do not know what we want that is why stories brands can get in between us and
the objects. We desperately want meaning, things cannot supply it and so we install it and branding works
‘’Brand begins with the actual physical branding of cattle—to distinguish one ranchers stock from
another. It is now a marketing term used to distinguish one manufacturer’s product from the competition.
It can be a name/title, a slogan, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s product
distinct from those of other sellers.
We are interested in its effect: short hand storytelling about a) the product but also b) the people who buy
James Twitchell a brand is simply a story attached to a manufactured object
2. Appellation (or Interpellation) the ad must speak to YOU and make you feel unique and different
(Appellation = creating us as different subjects). Interpellation is a “Hey, you!” function done by an ad,
and causes response in the consumer. And in being hailed, you become the subject. Appellation requires
an exchange; between you as an individual and the imaginary subject addressed by the ad
3. Targeted Advertising Advertising done through consumer interests. Could be done demographically.
An example would be Prizm Segmentation, which operated with the help of Postal codes.
4. Trademark a legal distinction that includes any device, brand, label, name, signature, word, letter,
numerical, shape of goods, packaging, color or combination of colors, smell, sound, movement or any
combination thereof which is capable of distinguishing goods and services of one business from those of
others. It must be capable of graphical representation and must be applied to goods or services for which it
Ex. Trademarking “Whassup” 5. Cluster the now mainstream practices that both merge and segment data (from census, market
research surveys, public opinion polls, and point of purchase receipts) to uncover consumer interests,
desires and lifestyles. Being used by corporations, ad agencies, nonprofit and political groups alike to
“target” their audiences
6. Conspicuous Consumption
spending money on or acquiring luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power and the
related practice of conspicuous leisure, were a means of displaying the “social worth” of the affluent
classes, signaling their status above ordinary people who were engaged in productive work.
Term coined in 1899 by economic and social theorist Thorstein Veblen.
7. Conspicuous Unconsumption process by which one displays lack of consumption for his/her personal
benefit (e.g. Colin Beavan in No Impact Man criticized that what he is doing is for media
8. Democratizing Consumption By having malls available, anyone can come in regardless of your status.
An example would be Macy’s Thanksgiving parade which attracts audiences
came with rise of department stores; shopping becomes an activity accessible to everyone regardless of
socioeconomic background (free to enter store w/o obligation to buy)
10. Flâneur An urban rambler often describing an individualistic and masculine perspective of the city and
modernity; identity is created through wandering, browsing through space
emblematic of urban & modern experience
11. Proletarian shopping window shopping with no intention to buy. Young people consuming images
and space instead of commodities; a kind of sensuous consumption that doesn’t create profits. à
oppositional cultural practice that asserts difference from the established expectations of use and the sort of
“spitting” in the face of “real” consumers or mall security guards.
12. la perruque This is a worker’s own activities disguised as work for his/her employer. This is not
“pilfering” as nothing is actually stolen nor is it absenteeism the worker comes to office and is technically
on the job. Rather it describes when a worker diverts time or effort from the business or factory for
activities that are free, creative and precisely not directed toward company profit.
13. Trickster read and know the rules of the game but take advantage and refuse to be subjugated
The youth were “Tricksters” in de Certeau’s terms – they pleasurably exploited their knowledge of the official “rules of the game” in order to identify where these rules could be mocked, inverted, and thus used
to free those they were designed to discipline. And points to the central importance of the trickster and the
guileful ruse throughout peasant and folk cultures. Tricks and ruses are the art of the weak that enables
them to exploit their understanding of the rules of the system, and turn it to their advantage. They are refusal
to be subjugated. Shopping malls are open invitations to trickery and tenacity. The youth who turn them
into their meeting places, with no intention to buy.
14. Encoding creation of meaning, production of message; happens in production stage of Stuart Hall’s
15. Decoding interpreting the message which requires active recipients; how audiences
A. Dominant/Hegemonic Code when viewer takes connoted meaning and forms and decodes the
message in terms of reference code in which was encoded; most ideal type/transparent
B. Negotiated Code majority audiences understand adequately what has been signified; still
hegemonic; a mixture of adaptive and oppositional forces and acknowledge hegemonic definition
but has its own ground rules
C. Oppositional Code decoding message in a globally contrary way; detotalizes encoded message
in preferred code to retotalize message with alternative framework or reference
16. Poaching instances when we manipulate or use the structures/objects /tools of power for our own
ends. A way of making your own meanings on the product.
17. Exvertisement these are ad practices that try to take your eye off the ball, they divert your attention to
18. Ethical Consumption ways in which people do not step outside consumer system but allocate their
money and economic power to products that were produced in more ethical ways (e.g. Organic foods,
sweatshop free products)
19. Interactivity its related to the notion of being watched, especially when it comes to monitoring your
behavior online, because its kind of an interactive medium where you give out information about yourself
and that is then used to customize ads and such that are presented to you
20. Antiadvertising a style of advertising that harnessed the public mistrust of consumerism in the service
of the consumer system (key ad man: Bill Bernbach) Short Answer questions
Political Ads: Different Models and Functions
1.Name Identification Spots shown early in the campaign (Identity)
2.Argument spots which present the candidates’ positions on issues (Ideology)
3. Attack spots which focus on the opponent (Insult)
4. Positive Visionary Appeals used at the end of the campaign to give the voter a last reason or
imperative to go out and vote for the candidate usually these are about “character” (Image)
Public Service Announcements: is a notice disseminated by the media without charge in order to create
awareness or change public attitudes/behaviors about a particular issue.
Culture Jamming: aims to disrupt consumer culture by transforming
corporate advertising with subversive messages. As in the example
above, a Coca Cola sign has been defaced to note the company's
other imperative aside from love.
2 “There is No Such Thing as ‘Society’” (Psychological)
There is no such thing as society; there are just individuals and their families
Nothing solid to call society; no group values, no collective interest, but rather is just a bunch of
individuals acting on their own.
Advertising does not address members of society, but as individuals
Market appeal worst of us “Greed and selfish”
Market also discourage what is best in us “compassion, caring and generosity”
“The End of the World as We Know It” (Material)
“Economic growth” growth that requires resources (both raw material and energy)
Affecting our planet leading to environmental crisis
Depletion of the ozone layer
Human rapidly exhausting earth resources than what it has to offer
Damage that is done, are irreparable
3. New Models and Modes of Advertising in the Digital World:
1. Social Network Advertising: Online advertising tied to social network sites – this is about the location of placing ads, but it is also tied with data gathering used to target these particular groups or individuals
2. "Contextual Advertising": refers to focused ads sent to your wireless internet device (iPad, phones, etc.)
when you connect to WiFi transmitters. By ‘locating’ your wireless device, marketers are able to send
targeted ads for businesses within the immediate area and relevant to the time of day.
∙ Google wanted provide “free” citywide wifi in San Francisco, (not in a way of being nice…) to
track and monitor consumer practices and provide time and location specific ads – where Google
could track one’s searches on what one is looking up at a given time ⇒ Author Mark Andrejevic
refers to this as an digital enclosure, where there is a creation of an interactive realm where every
interaction and transaction generates information about itself
∙ Also with the increasing numbers of smartphones, service provider companies can track who you
are calling and when and also keep track of your pop culture preferences based on your downloaded
o This information that is being tracked can be then sorted and sold to other people as
3. Interactive Marketing Campaigns: These are ones that change or react with the individual or encourage
them to ‘talk back’ to the ad in some way
∙ engages directly with the consumer
∙ change or react with individuals and make them a literal part of the commercial itself where the
viewer becomes engaged with the advertising – seen to be more effective than traditional modes of
∙ QR codes (Quick Response codes) that encodes information about the product
4. No impact man
5. Tsai and toy theory
Essay Section: (bullet form some notes for these topics)
1. The Work of Being Watched
Watching and being watched
“The work of watching” describes television viewing as a form of labor for which consumers get “paid”.
Instead of being given money, the viewer gets compensation for watching commercials and other advertising
in the form of programming content.
“The work of being watched” rethinks this idea in light of technologies that monitor consumers. For the
“work of being watched” we are paid a wage in the form of convenience and customization.
Reading: (everything in blue is topics she went over in class and how they were discussed) Notes from reading:
consumers give personal information for customized offers → the audience provides market research for
Mark Andrejevic says that the act of watching and the act of being watched are complementary to one
details of people’s daily lives are being monitored such as their viewing habits, their shopping habits, even
their whereabouts are not only being monitored but are also being included in detailed marketing databases
especially because of computerbased forms of interactive media
it also creates for concerns with surveillance – however this can be seen as just as how workplace
monitoring contributes to the rationalization of production, in the same way, online surveillance contributes to
the rationalization of consumption.
This sort of monitoring provides individualized tastes and preferences
o Allows for ‘Mass Customization’ (discussed in more detail below) where desires can be specified
even more narrowly, based not just on the consumers’ past preferences or socioeconomic
backgrounds but also on details of the moment such as location, time of day, the weather, etc. (this
was also discussed in class, she gave the example of someone sitting in Starbucks using the
Starbucks WiFi and searching something on Google and automatically receiving ads based on their
searches and location à ads of products available at stores closest to the person’s current location)
This to marketers can be economically productive as it stimulates consumption by accumulating, manipulating
and deploying that information through surveillance
Another approach suggests the consumers are being ‘paid’ for viewing ads by watching their shows (she
also stressed on this point in class)
→ “audience perform work by viewing advertising in exchange for ‘payment’ in the form of programming
content” and this is important as advertising speeds up the process of consumption
Class Discussion about this:
Mark Andrejevic says watching ads does not provide monetary compensation, instead the viewer gets paid
in the form of being able to watch his/her favorite programming with the effort put in to watch the
commercials → for this to work there is need to be ‘concentrated viewing’, where people are engaged and
invested in what they see
Also says that this goes handinhand with watching viewers to understand that the work of the market is
being done effectively (these points comes straight from the reading and were discussed in class)
Online economy works as an outlet to understand the work of viewing and of consumption in general and
indeed makes it more productive
→ “the goal is to replace mass marketing and production with customized programming, products, and
marketing” – allows for the phenomenon of mass customization
∙ Mass customization: ability to produce mass quantities of products that are at the same time