MDSB03 Midterm Review Sheet
Williams writes that is not persuasive to use because people are too materialistic,
but rather it is effective because modern people are not materialistic enough. If we
were truly materialistic, then we would just want material goods for their pure
material function, their inherent “use Value”. But just showing the product in an
ad would not easily differentiate brands that are often exactly alike in substance
and function.Ads therefore, frequently say that buying the material product
(brand) will solve non-material problems: buying a car will provide family
security. Brands have the power to solve our problems.
Concept of obsolescence, if refers to replacing old goods with new goods even if
the old goods are still functional. Consumer culture applied obsolescence to
nearly all product categories as a way to regulate market demand.
Encouraging people to replace goods before the old ones were used up was another
strategy for increasing markets. Products “are never offered in just one unique form;
increasingly, the consumer is invited to choose between one variant and another, between
one set of accessories, or gamuts, or programs, and another, and to combine the elements
of each more or less freely.
Fashion is in the Susan Strasser reading "TheAlien Past" and she talks about it on pg 32.
Acapitalist society produces more goods than are necessary for it to function;
hence the need to consume goods is an important part of its ideology.
Idea works far more subtly than it is based on false assumptions. In ideology
assumptions are made about us, which we do not question, because we see them
as already true: time it self has been appropriated as a part of ideology.
ADS create an ‘alreadyness’of facts about ourselves as individuals that we are
consumers that we have certain values, that we will freely buy things, consume on
the basis of those values, and so on.
• Commodity Fetishism
The process by which mass produced goods are emptied of the meaning of their
production (the context in which they were produced and the labor that created
them) and then filled with new meanings in ways that both mystify the product
and turn it into a fetish object. For instance, a designer shirt doesn’t contain within
it the meaning of the context in which it is produced. The consumer is given no
information about who sewed it, the factor where the material was produced, or
the culture in which it was made. Rather the product is affixed with logos and
linked to advertising images that imbue it with cultural meanings quite apart from
those of its specific production conditions and context. Can be seen as a system of mystification that empties objects of the meaning of their production and then fill
them with commodity status.
• Bricolage/ Counterbricolage
The redeployment of commodities for new purposes and meaning – the wearing
of a safety pin as body decoration is called Bricolage.
Bricolage is a mode of adaptation where things are put to uses for which they
were not intended and in ways that dislocate them from their normal or expected
Counter-Bricolage to appropriate styles which have reconfigured commodities.
They repackage the youth styles that use bricolage to change the meaning of
commodities, and resell those ideas to mainstream consumers. For instance, the
youth style of wearing boxer shorts visibly above one’s pants has produced a
fashion trend for designer boxer shorts. Contemporary advertising thus often uses
codes of the street, urban hipness and subculture fashion to repackage products
and sell them to consumer as authentic.
to have a bmw or a mercedes means luxury . its kinda of like how a rose means
romance although ad did not do that , thats just culture.AlthoughAds made a
mercedes more rich and more about luxury than a hyundai. Get it ?
The Gap ad described in the Manufacturing of Desire reading. (page 208) It
creates a direct connection for the consumer between product and a figure of some
kind. So the Gap ad said Marilyn Monroe or Picasso wore gap khakis so then the
khakis become a signifier of creativity or fame.
• Referent Systems
The system of signs from which the product draws its image is a referent system
In that the sign lifted out of it and placed in theAd. It is only by referring back to
this system as a system of differences that the sign can function: it is hollow of
meaning in itself; it signified is only a distinction rather than ”content”. Only the
form and structure of the referent system are appropriated by the advertisement
system; it is the relationship and distinction between parts, rather than the parts
themselves, that make an already-structured external system so valuable to
advertising. The links made between elements from a referent system and
products arise from the place these elements have in the whole system rather than
from their inherent qualities.
The first one refers to multi-coloured images for the first time. It was used in
greeting cards and the marketing of toys
• Participation Copy
participatory copy has never been explicitly detailed in readings or lecture but I
can discern it just means the shift from the speaking down to the consumer to a
person to person discourse. I did some research, and scholars usually use this term
to refer to a language of advertising that involves the consumer experience and
invites the reader to become a part of that journey.Accomplished through
testimonial spreads and directly addressing reader. “Advice” from other users • Cult of Thinness
It's from the Jean Kilbourne video! Mostly about how pop culture likes to ridicule
and mock celebrities who gained weight. It focuses on the obsession with thinness
in media and advertisements. Case in point is how models are getting thinner and
thinner, and if they're not thin enough Photoshop is used. So the obsession with
thinness translates to everyday advertisements and women are bombarded with
ads dealing with weight loss leading to even more dissatisfaction and ultimately
• William Benton
• David Ogilvy
Said one of the riskiest decision ever made and one which few advertisers would
• Consumer Culture
Consumer culture is a commodity culture that is, a culture in which commodities
are central to cultural meaning. Commodities are things that are bought and sold
in a social system of exchange. The concept of commodity culture is intricately
allied with the idea that we construct our identities, at least in part, through the
consumer products that inhabit our lives. This is what media scholar Sturat Ewen
has termed the commodity self, the idea that our selves, indeed our subjectivities,
are mediated and constructed in part through our consumption and use of
commodities. Clothing, music, cosmetic products, and cars, among other things,
are commodities which people use to present their identities to those around them.
• Smooth Coating
Look at Roland Barthes' "Ornamental Cooking", he talks about this.
Smooth coating is like "food porn".
• Therapetuic ethic
• Strategies Vs. Tactics
• Repeat Motif
• Type Tricks
type tricks is laying out type (text) in a way that forms an image in order to attract
a customer. aka. merry fucking christmas is written in a way that looks like a tree
• Objective Correlative
The only way of expressing emotion in the form of art, in other words, a set of
objects, a situation, a chain of vents, which shall be the formula of that particular
emotion; such that when the external facts, which must terminate in sensory
experience, are given, the emotion is immediately evoked.
The formulaic reaction implied in Eliot’s line is shown in countless television
rituals; one might think a crackerjack pencil was the objective correlative for pleasure, by the obligatory shrieks and cheers of delight raised by the audience at
each mention for the word “Crackerjack”.
• Scare Copy
scare copy is negative appeals that jolt the consumeri into a fear of social
consequences that commodity consumption can prevent. For example, Lysol
disinfectant argues that "She only had herself to blame" as people judge the
woman's skin in the ad as too old for her husband
• Market Segmentation
Wendell smith warned of the growing danger of product competition, proposed an
alternative to mass marketing that “find their markets of maximum potential as a
result of recognition of difference in the requirements of market segments.”
Think about Rich Vs poor different perspectives and symbolic value.
Market segmentation provided a way of classifying priorities.
• Leo Burnett
• Planned Obsolescence
• Commodity Self
• Denotation/ Connotation
• Side By SideApproach
Side by Side approach posits the advertiser and consumer as team working
towards a certain goal or task. It's a type of ad that uses a positive appeal to the
consumer, as oppose to scare copies.
• Reason Why Campaign
It is the first function of an advertisement to create a differentiation between one
particular product and others in the same category. It does this by providing the
product with an “image”; this image only succeeds in differentiating between
products in so far as it is part of a system of difference. The identity of anything
depends more on what it is not than what it is, since bou