MDSB05 (Media & Globalization): Reading Notes

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Media Studies
Ruoyun Bai

MDSB05H3S MediaGlobalizationWeek 2 Reading Notes January 15 2014Chapter 1 Economic militarypolitical power depends on efficient communication which includes flagsbeacon fires ships telegraph wiresnow satellites During two world warsthe cold war new medias radioTV significance was shown throughtheir use in international propagandatheir potential for socioeconomic development Communication is critical to the establishmentmaintenance of power authority trade commerce over distanceThe Persian king Darius sent news from the capital to the provinces by positioning men onheights who would shout to eachother which was 30x faster than using runners Writing became a more flexible way of sending information over long distances Indian Mughal period waqianawis news writers appraised kings with empires progress wherehorsemenrunners transmitted newsreports In 618907 Tang dynasty China created the ti pao a handwritten newspaper for elites In 16441911 Ching period private news bureaux composedcirculated official news in printedform known as the Ching pao Travellerstraders have existed for over two millennia between the GraecoRoman Arabia IndiaChinaThe Silk Route through central Asia linked China IndiaPersia with EuropeInfoideas were communicated across continentsBuddhism ChristianityIslam spread Communication developed from Mesopotamias clay tablet EgyptsGreeces papyrus rollsthe Roman Empires parchment codexth 8 century Chinas paper replaced Islamics parchmentspread to medieval Europeth 15 century The movable type printing press was developed by John Gutenbergth 16 century These printing presses turned out 1000s of book copies in all major Euro languages New languages of Portuguese Spanish EnglishFrench were the main communication method for European colonial powers in many parts of the worldThe Industrial Revolution in Western Europe stimulated the internationization of communicationThe iron ship steam engineelectric telegraph kept Britain ahead of its rivals Emigration created a demand for news about relatives at homeabroad 1840 England Postal reform created by author Anthony Trollope 1875 Berne Universal Postal Unionth 19 centurys second half expanded communication with the electric telegraph It was invented by Samuel Morse in 1837it enabled rapid transmission of info with secrecy code protectionThe business community made use of it firstit unified the British Empire1838 Britain First commercial telegraph link was set up1851 Public telegraph service like money order systems were created Communication that was once done throughout months by sea took minutes by telegraph and italso helped with military affairs William Howard Russell was the first big name in international journalism The Times of London USAs Civil War 186165 over 24000 km of cable was laid to send 65 million telegrams This Civil War was one of the earliest conflicts to be reported extensivelythe first example ofphotojournalismcooperative news gathering by USEuro journalists Telegraphic cables then linked together many countries across the globes Undersea cables were funded by colonial authorities banks businessmennewspaperindustry making it largely in the private sectors hands Total cable distance of 104000 milesnot more than 10 of it was administered by government The International Telegraph Union was founded in 1865 with 22 members All Europeanexcluding Persia to regulate info Europethe US were strengthened by SpanishAmerican warthe Boer War Improvedcommunication links were neededWireless telegraphy radiotelegraphy was created by Guglielmo Marconi in 1901 Britains Eastern Telegraph Companythe US Based Western Union Telegraph Companydominate the cable industry The dominance of British cable companies lasted until the end of WW1Americans dominated the new phone technology invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1877 andwas patented by the Bell Telephone Company 1885 American TelephoneTelegraph ATT was foundedcontrolled US telecommunicationnetworks st 1887 The 1 international phone calls were made between ParisBrusselsst 1956 The 1 phone cable was laid under the Atlanticcreated a global dimension The French Havas Agency formerly AFP was founded in 1835 the German agency Wolff was founded in 1849 the US agency Associated Press was established in 1848the BritishsReuters was founded in 1851Reuters concentrated on commercialfinancial info while Havas focused on info and advertising Havas WolffReuters Europes 3 news agencies signed a treaty to divide up the worldmarket between them Reuters was created by Julius Reuter in 1851 by using pigeons and it became the worlds largest newsTV agency Reuters fortunes were parallel to the British Empiresit used telegraphs to its advantage The Reuters Factor Their relationship between capital and communicationit functions likea multiplier that turns increases in info into increases in businessth In the 19 century the global newspaper industry grew due to more printing presses andinternationalization of news agencies William Randolph Hearst created the New York Journalintroduced the penny press in the USA 1895 First film screenings occurred in ParisBerlin19091913 Independent studios were createdlead to the growth of the Hollywood film industry HMV His Masters Voice was popular in musicit merged with the USs Columbia Gramophoneth Company in 1931 to create EMI ElectricMusical Industries which dominated through the 20centurybeyondthUSbased ad companies were looking beyond the domestic market by the 19 centurys endth20 century Ads became important in international communication1902 First human voice in radio transmissionWhile cables were vulnerable under oceans radio waves could travel anywhere without political or geographical restrains London 1912 Stations that transmitted across national borders had to register wavelength use with the International Radiotelegraph Union due to an agreement Two type of national radio broadcast USAs Radio Act 1927 Commercial enterprise funded by advertisingBritains Broadcasting Corporation BBC 1927 Non profit public broadcasting monopoly1927 World Radio Conference Washington Private companies wrote agreement allowing themto continue developing spectrum use without considering signal interference with other countries Radio was used during WW1 for propaganda and to manage public opinionThe worlds first shortwave radio broadcasts were sent out from Moscow in 1925 Josef Goebbels was the head of Hitlers Propaganda Ministryhe believed that radios would be a useful propaganda tool 1942 Voice of America VOA founded US Government used radio to promote political interests It operated on global network stations to propagate American way of life to international listeners By the late 1960s Moscow Radio was worlds largest international broadcaster broadcastingmore programme hours than the US from 19691972 in 84 languagesrdThe West targeted 3 World countries because of their low literacy ratesMiddle Easterncountries because of their oil supplyrd3 World Term coined by French economic historian Alfred Sauvy in 1952 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment SITE Launched by the Indian Government in 1975
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