Final Exam notes Chapter 10.docx

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Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

Communication Communication process Communication - process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver Effective communication - occurs when the right people receive the right information in a timely manner Basics of Organization Communication Communication by Strict Chain of Command (lines of authority and formal reporting relationships  Downward communication - information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom  Upward communication - information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top  Horizontal communication - information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as means of coordinating effort Deficiencies in the Chain of Command  Informal communication - informal interaction helps people accomplish their jobs more effectively and not all communication benefits the organization  Filtering - tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission; upward filtering occurs because employees are afraid that their boss will use information against them; downward filtering is due to time pressures or simple lack of attention to detail but more sinister motives may be at work; Open door policy - opportunity for employees to c ommunicate directly with a manager without going through chain of command  Slowness - slower for horizontal communication Barriers to communication  Conflicting Role Demands - balancing the role of attending to both task and socio- emotional functions  Mum Effect - tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others Grapevine/rumors  Grapevine is the informal communication network that exists in any organization  Extraverts are more likely to participate and people who lack self-esteem.  The physical location of members is also related to their opportunity to both receive and transmit news via the vine  Rumors - an unverified belief that is in general circulation Verbal Communication Jargon - specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations Non-verbal Communication  The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing  Body Language - non-verbal communication by means of a sender‟s bodily motions, facial expressions or physical location. Senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they: o Position themselves physically close to the receiver o Touch the receiver during the interaction o Maintain eye contact with the receiver o Lean forward during the interaction o Direct the torso toward the receiver o Relaxation is demonstrated by: the casual, asymmetrical placement of arms and legs, a reclining, non-erect seating position and a lack of fidgeting and nervous activity  Props, Artifacts and Costumes o Office décor and Arrangement o Does clothing communicate Communication Channels Email Etiquette  Grammar Fascists  Greetings and Salutations  Using all Caps makes it appear as though you are shouting. The same is true for exclamation points  “It can‟t hurt to ask”  “I don‟t mean to  Emoticons  Receipt on Read  Forwarding  Keep emails simple  Avoid shellfish pizza incidents (allergies) Information Overload Gender/cultural differences Gender  Getting credit  Confidence and boasting  Asking questions  Apologies  Feedback  Compliments  Ritual opposition  Managing up and down  Indirectness Cross Cultural Communication  Language Differences – communication is generally better between individuals or groups who share similar cultural values. This is mor
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