OB Exam Hints FOR WEAVER .docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Craig Weaver

MGHB02 Study Guide Chapter 4 Definition: What are values? • A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others • Values are motivational since they signal the attractive aspects of our environment that we seek and the unattractive aspects of our environment that we try to avoid and change • People tend to hold values structured around such factors such as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare • Broad tendency means that values are general and that they do not predict behaviour in specific situations i.e. knowing an individual is a capitalist we may not know how he would react to a homeless man this afternoon 5 items are really important since most research uses that to define certain cultures. 1. Power distance • just refers to the cultures preference with regard to distance • refers to the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power including those who hold more power and those who hold less • small power distance: inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed i.e. Denmark, New Zealand • large power distance societies, inequality is accepted as natural superiors are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted i.e. Russia, Mexico 2. Uncertainty avoidance • Refers to the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations • Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulation hard work, conformity, and security i.e. japan, Greece • Weak uncertainty is less concerned with rules, conformity, and security and hard work is not seen as a virtue. However risk taking is valued i.e. Singapore Denmark • Canada and USA exhibits weak uncertainty avoidance 3. Masculinity/ Femininity: • More masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles and support the dominance of men and stress economic preference i.e. Slovakia and Japan • More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality and stress quality of life i.e. Scandinavian countries • Canada mid pack 4. Individualism and Collectivism • Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative ,and privacy i.e. USA, Canada, Great Britain • Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan i.e. Columbia, Pakistan 5. Long term and short term orientation: • Cultures with a long term orientation tend to stress persistence, perserverance, thrift and close attention to sstatus differences i.e. China, Hong Kong • Cultures with a sshort term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability face-saving and social niceties i.e. USA, Canada Great Britain • Long term orientation explains prolific East Asian entrepreneurship What are attitudes? An Attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation person or category of people. • Attitudes are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude • Thus attitudes often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person or group • Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel • Attitudes are the product of a related belief and value • Belief + Value => Attitude-> Behaviour  My job is interfering with my family life (Belief)  I dislike anything that hurts my family (Value)  I dislike my job (Attitude)  Ill search for another job (Behaviour) What is job satisfaction? • Job satisfaction refers to a collection of attitudes that people have about their jobs • Two aspects of satisfaction  Facet satisfaction: the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job “I love my work but hate my boss” or “This place pays lousy, bu the people I work with re great.”  Overall satisfaction: an overall or summary indicator of a person’s attitude toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets “On the whole, I really like my ob, although a couple of aspects could stand some improvement.” Overall satisfaction is an average or total of the attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of the job What determines job satisfaction?  Discrepancy • Beliefs and values are two factors that cause differences in job satisfaction even when jobs are identical • People might differ in their beliefs about the job in question; they might differ in their perceptions concerning the actual nature of the job • Discrepancy theory: a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained  Fairness • Issues of fairness affect both what people want from their jobs and how they react to the inevitable discrepancies of organizational life • Three basic kinds of fairness:  Distributive fairness  Occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs; that is it involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources  Equity theory states that the inputs that people perceive themselves as investing in a job and the outcomes that the job provides are compared  My outcomes / My Inputs = Other’s outcomes / Other’s inputs  Inputs consist of anything that individuals consider relevant to their exchange with the organization, anything that they give up, offer, or trade to their organization; include factors such as education, training, seniority  Outcomes are those factors that the organization distributes employees in return for their input  Most relevant outcomes are represented by the factors such as pay, career-opportunities, supervision, the nature of work  Equity theory has important implications for job satisfaction  First inequity itself is a dissatisfying state  Procedural Fairness  Occurs when individuals see the process used to determine outcomes as reasonable  That is rather than involving he actual distribution of resources or rewards, it is concerned with how these outcomes are decided and allocated  Relevant to outcomes such as pay raises, promotions layoffs, and work assignments  Factors that contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness o Follows consistent procedures over time and across people o Uses accurate information and appears unbiased o Allows two-way communication during the allocation process o Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation  Likely to provoke dissatisfaction when people also see distributive fairness as being low  Interactional Fairness  Occurs when people feel that they have received respectful and informative communication about some outcome  It extends beyond the actual procedures used to the interpersonal treatment received when learning about the outcome  Respectful communication is sincere polite and teats the individual with dignity  Informative communication is candid , timely and thorough  Interactional fairness is important because it is possible for absolutely fair outcomes or procedures to be perceived as unfair when they are inadequately or uncaringly explained  Lower managers have little control over procedures that are used to allocate resources  Both procedural and interactional fairness can to some extent offset the negative effects of distributive fairness   Disposition (important!) • Dispositional view is the idea that some people are predisposed by virtue of their personalities to be more or less satisfied despite changes in discrepancy or fairness • Some characteristics originating in genetics or early learning contributes to job satisfaction • Disposition is based on the Big Five personality traits • People who ar
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