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Management (MGH)
Julie Mc Carthy

Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture 1. Social influence in organizations Information dependence and effect dependence: Information dependence: Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act. ----Individuals are motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings, and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy. Effect dependence: Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. ----The group has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group. ----The member frequently desires the approval of the group. 2. Social influence in action: (why norms are supported) Motives for social conformity: Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. (External forces) Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. (Imitation) ----Information dependence is important. Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. (Internal forces, seen as right) The subtle power of compliance: A compliant individual is doing something that is contrary to the way he or she thinks or feels. ----Ways to reduce the dissonance: To cease conformity: when the required behavior is at great variance with ones values or moral standards. But the person has to adopt an isolated role. To gradually accept the beliefs, values, and attitudes that support the norm: when the required behavior is not so discrepant with ones current value system. 3. Organizational socialization: Socialization: the process by which people learn the norms and roles that are necessary to function in a group or organization. ----A learning process for new members to acquire knowledge, change attitudes, and perform new behaviors. ----A primary means by which organizations communicate the organizations culture and values to new members, it is also called onboarding. Socialization process: Exhibit 8.1 (socialization methods proximal socialization outcomes distal socialization outcomes) Proximal socialization: Learning: help to reduce role ambiguity and role conflict. Achieve good fit: strongly related to job attitudes and behaviors. Person-job fit: the match between an employees knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job. Person-organization fit: the match between an employees personal values and the values of and organization.
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