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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)

Appendix Research in Organizational Behaviour Research is a way of finding out about the world through objective and systematic information gathering (wo the use of opinion and common sense). Knowledge and understanding of OB research will: o Allow you to use a critical perspective in order to differentiate carefully designed and evaluated OB interventions (e.g., job redesign, employee development programs) from useless ones. o Enable managers to make better decisions through evidence-based management. Evidence-based management: Involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. Compared to decisions made based on personal preference and unsystematic experience, the use of evidence-based management is more likely to result in the attainment of organizational goals. The Basics of Organizational Behaviour Research All research in OB begins with a question about work or organizations. Hypothesis: A formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables. o E.g., The introduction of a small attendance bonus will reduce absenteeism. Variables: Measures that can take on two or more values. o E.g., A variable with two values (bonus versus no bonus) is related to one that can take on many values (days of absenteeism). Types of Variables Independent Variable: The variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a dependent variable. Dependent Variable: The variable that is expected to vary as a result of changes to the independent variable. o E.g., The independent variable is the attendance bonus and the dependent variable is absenteeism. Moderating Variable: A variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable. Indicates when an independent variable is most likely to be related to a dependent variable. o E.g., Pay satisfaction would moderate the effect of an attendance bonus on absenteeism if the bonus only reduces the absenteeism of employees who are not satisfied with their pay and has no effect on the absenteeism of employees who are satisfied with their pay. Mediating Variable: A variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. o E.g., Motivation intervenes or mediates the relationship between the attendance bonus and absenteeism because the bonus increases peoples motivation to come to work. Measurement of Variables
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