txtbook ch5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)

Chapter Five- Theories of Work Motivation Why Study Motivation? The need for increase productivity to be globally competitive Need for rapid changes that contemporary organization are undergoing Stable systems are replaced by requirement s for flexibility and attention to customers which requires high levels of initiative Initiative depends n motivation What is Motivation? Person works hard, direct hisher behaviour toward appropriate outcomes Basic Characteristics of Motivation Motivation-the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal Effort The strength of the persons work-related behaviour amount of effort exhibits on the job Persistence Persistency applied to the effort of the working task Cannot work hard for two hours, then goof off for six hours Direction Effort and persistence refer to quantity of work an individual producesquality crucial also Goals All motivated behaviour have goalobjective which it is directed Motivated ppl act to enhance organizational objectives ie. High productivity, attendance, creativity May also be motivated by goal contrary to organization: absenteeism, sabotage 1 www.notesolution.comExtrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation People are motivated by factors in external environment (pay), or be self-motivated wo external factors Intrinsic Motivation Motivation that stems from the direct relationship bt worker and taskself applied Ex. Achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence, interest in job Freedom to make choices is intrinsic motivation Extrinsic Motivation Motivation that stems from the work environment external o the task, usually applied by others Ex. pay benefits, company policies, supervision Profit sharing and employee stock options are extrinsic motivators The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from task Extrinsic rewards depend on performancemotivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individual feel less competent and less in control of own behaviourppl then believe that performance is controlled by environment and perform only for moneyintrinsic motivation suffers Motivation and Performance Performance-extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives for the organization General Cognitive Ability General cognitive ability- a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources Cognitive abilityintelligence or mental ability Reflect individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing info and includes a number of cognitive abilities: verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities 2 www.notesolution.com
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