Chapter 7.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Management (MGM)
David Perley

Chapter Seven-Social Behaviour and Organizational Processes What is a Group?  Group- two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal o Interacting  suggest who is in and who isn’t in the group  need not to meet face to face or verbal communication ie. Telecommute o interdependence  group members rely on each other to accomplish goals all groups have 1 or more goals  Importance of group membership o Group tremendous influence on us  social mechanism by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours  provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others  Formal work groups-group that organizations establish to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals o Intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction o Most common formal groups: a manager and employees who report to manager ie. Production manager, supervisor (who report to manager) o Hierarchy of most organizations is a series of formal interlocked work groups o Task forces-temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems ie suggesting productivity improvements o Committees- permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structures  Informal groups- groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members o Seldom sanctioned by organization, members often cuts across formal groups o Can either help or hurt organization, depending on their norms of behaviour Group Development Typical Stages of Group Development  like hierarchy, in which each stage must be mastered to achieve next stage  a good tool for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups are developing, but not ALL groups go through these stages  applies to NEW groups that have never met before  some organizational setting are so structured that stroming and norming are unncessary 1. Forming  orient themselves by “testing the waters”  what are we doing, what are others like, our purpose 2. Storming  Conflict often emerges  Confrontations and criticism occur  Roles and responsibilities are issued 3. Norming  Issues between members resolved and develop social consensus  Compromise is often necessary  Interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed, group becomes more cohesive  Information and opinions flow freely 4. Performing  Group devotes its energies towards task accomplishment  Achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance are prominent themes of this stage 5. Adjourning  Most teams have a definite life span and disperse after achieving goal, or from layoffs or downsizing  Ceremonies and parties to celebrate success, members exhibit emotional support for each other 1 Punctuated Equilibrium  Punctuated equilibrium model-model of group development that describes how groups w/ deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transactions o Equilibrium- means stability, research revealed apparent stretches of group stability punctuated by a critical first meeting, midpoint change in group activity and rush to task completion 1. Phase 1  Begins w/ the first meeting and continues until midpoint in group’s existence  First meeting is critical in setting agenda for what will happen in remainder of phase st st  Assumptions, approaches and precedents members develop in 1 meeting will dominate 1 half of group’s life  Group makes little visible progress towards goal 2. Midpoint transition  Occurs at almost halfway point towards deadline  Marks a change in group’s approach, and how group manages it is critical for group to show progress  Need to move forward is apparent  Group may seek outside advice  May consolidate preciously acquired info or mark a completely new approach 3. Phase 2  Decisions and approaches adopted at midpoint get played out  Concludes/ a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate product  Advice from Punctuated Equilibrium Model  Prepare carefully for 1 meetingb/c what is decided will strongly determine what happens in phase 1 2  As long as ppl are working, do not look for radical progress in phase 1  Manage midpoint transition carefullyevaluate strengths and weaknesses of ideas that ppl generate in phase 1; clarify questions with whoever is commissioning your work o Recognize that a fundamental change in approach must occur for progress to occur o Focus of strategy to be used in Phase 2  Be sure that adequate resources are available to execute the phase 2 plan Group Structure and Its Consequences  Group structure-refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is “put together” Group Size  Smallest group =2 ppl, but most between 3-20 ppl Size and Satisfaction  More merrier-theory says YES, BUT larger groups report less satisfaction w/ group members than smaller groups Pros (more ppl) Cons  Opportunities for  Chance to work on and develop opportunities might decrease to time and friendship increase energy required  More members w/ diff.  Prompt conflicts and dissention, work against satisfaction viewpoints  Time for verbal participation decrease  Ppl inhibited about participating in large groups  Members identify less easily w/ the success and accomplishments of group Size and Performance  Size of group depends highly on the TASK itself  Additive tasks-tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of indiv. group members o We can predict potential performance by adding performances of individual group members together o Ie. Building house, b/c we can estimate potential speed of construction by adding the efforts of indiv. Carpenters o Potential performance of group increase with group size  Disjunctive tasks-group performance is dependent on the performance of best group member o Of research team is looking for a single error in a complicated computer program, performance of team hinged on the brightest, most attentive individual  Potential performance-as groups performing tasks get bigger, they tend to suffer from process losses o Process losses- performance difficulties’ that stem from problem of motivating and coordinating large groupscaused by problems in communications  o Both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and disjunctive tasks o Actual performance increases with size up to a point and then falls off o Average performance of group members decrease as size gets bigger  Conjunctive tasks-tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member o Ie. An assembly-line operation is limited by its weakest link; or when teacher training employees on how to perform a complicated, sequential job, one poor teach would damage the effectiveness on the team o Both potential and actual performance of conjunctive tasks would decrease as group size increases because the probability of including a weak link in the group goes up o Larger groups might perform better up to a point for additive and disjunctive tasks o Small groups size (decrease size) always would best for conjunctive tasks Diversity of Group Membership  Cons: more diverse groups have more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive o Tend to take longer time to do forming, storming and norming 3 o But once pass that stage, would be equally cohesive and productive  Pros: diverse groups sometimes perform better when requires cognitive, creativity-demanding tasks and problem solving than routine work b/c members consider a broader array of ideas o Negative effects of surface diversity, in age, gender, race wear off over time o Deep diversity such as attitudes towards work or how to accomplish a goal can badly damage cohesiveness Group Norms  Norms-collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other o Have codes of conduct that specify what individuals should or should not do and the standards against which appropriateness of behaviour is evaluated o The influence is unconscious, only aware of it through special circumstances, ie in new situations Norm Development  FUNCTION of norms- provide regularity and predictability to behaviour  Consistency provides important psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption  Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered important o Ie. Managers adopt norms regarding the performance and attendance of employees than norms about how they decorate their offices o Less deviation is accepted from norms that concern more important behaviours  Members of a group share related beliefs and values, also share consequent attitudesforms the basis of norms  Norms are collectively held expectations, depend on +2 ppl (no my personal norm)  Norms save time and prevent social confusion Typical Norms:  Dress norms-dictate the kind of clothing ppl wear to work  Rewards allocation norms-mostly focus on equity and equality, no favouritism a. Equity- rewards according to inputs such as effort, performance or seniority b. Equality-reward everyone equally c. Reciprocity-reward ppl the way they ward you d. Social responsibility-rewards those who truly need the reward  Performance norms-a function of inherent ability, personal motivation or technology Roles  Roles-positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them  Roles represent packages of norms that apply to particular group members  Many norms apply to all group members to make sure that they engage is similar behaviours  Development of roles is indicative of the fact that group members might also be required to act differently from one another o Ie. In meetings, not every member act as a secretary or chairman; specific roles are fulfilled by specific ppl Role Ambiguity  Role ambiguity- lack of clarity of job goals or methods-when methods of performing it is unclear  Characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance can be achieved, and limits of one’s authority and responsibility  Role senders (managers) develop role expectations  focal people (employees) receives role and engages in behaviour to fulfill the role o Organizational factors: some roles seem inherently ambiguous b/c of their function in the organization  Ie. Mid. Management roles might fail to provide the “big picture” that upper management do o Role sender: role senders might have unclear expectations of a focal person; even when sender has specific role expectation, they might be ineffectively sent to the focal person  Ie. Vague performance reviews or inconsistent feedback and discipline send ambiguous role messages to employees 4 o Focal person: every role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digested by the focal person; especially when new to the role; ambiguity tends to decrease as length of time in the job role increases  Outcomes of role ambiguity: Job stress organizational performances dissatisfaction commitment quit reduced lowered Role Conflicts  Role conflicts-exists when an individual is face w. incompatible role expectations  The role expectations might be clear by incompatible b/c they are mutually exclusive and cannot be fulfilled simultaneously  Intrasender role conflict- occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to the role occupant  Intersender role conflict- two or more role sender differ in their expectations for a role occupant  Interrole conflict- several role held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations  Person-role conflict- role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skill of the role occupant  Outcomes of role conflicts Job dissatisfaction lowered commitment stress reaction turnover intentions Status  Status-the rank, social position or prestige according to group members  It represents the group’s evaluation of a member, evaluation depends on status system Formal status systems  Formal status system represents management’s attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others o Implemented by application of status symbol such as titles, working relationships, pay packages, work schedules, working environment o Achieving status through seniority or
More Less

Related notes for MGMA01H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.