MGTC20 Midterm.docx

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Management (MGM)
Bill Mc Conkey

10102011 73200 AM SECTION 1 PERCEPTION MEMORYCONTEXT Perception MemoryContextNo such thing as contextfree decision makingAll judgmentsdecisions rest on the way we seeinterpret the world Selective PerceptionPerceptions are heavily influenced by what you expect to seeNearly impossible to avoid biases in perceptionCHAPTER 1 Calling a Spade a SpadeExperiment showed 5 playing cards on a machine for brief intervals varying the exposure time 011 sec The cards had trick cards ie Black 3 of heartsIt took ppl more than 4 times to recognize trick cardsMost reactions to the incongruity could be categorized as dominance compromise disruption or recognition o Dominanceeg For black 3 of hearts most ppl were sure it was a normal 3 of hearts or a normal 3 of spades In the first case form in dominantcolour was assimilated to prior expectations In the second case colour is dominant and form is assimilated o CompromiseegRed 6 of Spades People reported it as a purple 6 of spaded or a purple 6 of hearts Some though black 4 of hearts was a greyish 4 of spades 50 showed compromise to red cards 11 to black cards o DisruptionPeople had trouble forming a perception of any sort eg I dont know what it is I dont even know if its a playing cardIt was rare but the results were dramatic o RecognitionRecognized that something was wrong Even when they did recognize some misperceived the incongruity eg Symbols were reversed turned the wrong wayExpectations can strongly influence perceptionsWhen ppl have enough experience w a situation they can often see what they expect to seeEgcount the number of f in the sentence Past performance actually lowers performance Potent ExpectationSubjects who thought they have been given vodkatonic showed much smaller increases in heart rate than subjects who thought they had been given tonic water aloneregardless of whether had actually ingested alcoholExpectations proved more important than changes in blood chemistryHigh sensation seekers who believed they had consumed alcohol whether or not they had changed lanespassed cars simulation more often that high sensation seekers who did not have this beliefLow sensation seekers who though they had consumed alcohol were more cautious than low sensation seekers who though they had notPERCEPTION MEMORYCONTEXTCognitive factorspeoples perceptions that are strongly influenced by prior beliefsexpectationsPerception is not only affect but what people expect to see but also by what they want to seeMotivational factorsFactors that deal with dopes desiresemotional attachmentsWhen the Going Gets RoughOne week after a rough football game both schools continues to debate who was responsibleHastofCantril asked who started the rough play o Dartmouth53 both 36 Dartmoutho Princeton86 Dartmouth 11 Both Selective PerceptionWondered whether DartmouthPrinceton were actually seeing diff games or whether they were observing the same game but interpreting the evidence differentlyAsked new group of students to watch a film of the gamerecord any infractions o Dartmouthsame number of infractions on both sides o PrincetonDartmouth committed twice as many infractions as PrincetonConclusion the game was actually many diff games It is inaccuratemisleading to say that diff ppl have diff attitudes concerning the same thing The thing is simply not the same for diff ppl whether it is a football game a presidential candidate etc Hostile Media EffectHostile media effectselective perception might lead political partisans on each side to view mass media coverage as biased against their side
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