textbook notes

8 Pages
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Department
Management (MGS)
Course Code
MGSC14H3
Professor
Andrew Stark

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Description
Theories of Justice: Moral theory: pragmatic justification is if you want x to be the case, then set up the necessary and sufficient conditions to maximize the probability that x will be the case Rational self interest argument: adopting the rule (to not kill innocent people) makes the world a safer place for you and those you love, so you should adopt the rule Utilitarianism Frequently referred to as a kind of consequentialist theory Evaluate what actions they should take or what rules they should follow based upon the best informationestimate of what consequences will follow from adopting particular actionsrules. Founded by the leader of the Philosophical Radicals, Jeremy Bentham and James Mill in early nineteenth century. Grounded in the belief that an action was right if and only if such action, on balance brought more good over bad than any other actions that was possible Good, not in a self interested way, but as a good for the good of all 2 kinds act utilitarian (committed to analyzing each particular act or action and determining its rightness based on maximizing the good over the bad of performing that action over all other possible actions). Rule utilitarian (evaluates the consequences of following a rule more generally, actions are only evaluated to assess their concordance with the general rules that themselves are evaluated in terms of good consequences over bad. Willing to accept that individual actions can cause more harm than good, but if following the rule on balance produces more good, then the individual harm is justified) Criticisms: Defining Good - What is good for one person is not necessarily good for another. It is dependent upon ability, education, intelligence and talents Harming some for the good of the whole (means to ends justification) compromising some individuals happiness for the greater balance of happiness for all (scapegoating) www.notesolution.com
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