very useful, organize key points for U

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Published on 15 May 2011
Management (MGH)
Appendix (p590-601)
Hypothesis a formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables.
Variables measure that can take on two or more values
Types of Variables
Independent variable is a predictor or cause of variation in a dependent variable
Dependent variable is a variable that will vary as a result of changes in the independent
Moderating variable a variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the
moderating variable
Mediating variable is a variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable.
Measurement of Variables
Reliability is a index of the consistency of a research subjects responses. (e.g. if we ask someone
several questions about how his pay is, he should respond roughly the same way to each question)
Validity is an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is suppose to measure.
(e.g. a good measure of perceived pay fairness should not be influenced by employees feelings of
fairness about other workplace factors like supervisision)
Convergent validity when there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same
variable. (e.g. a measure of job satisfaction should be highly correlated to other measures of job
Discriminant validity when there is a weak relationship between measures of different
variables. (e.g. a measure of job satisfaction should not be strongly related to measures of job
Observational Techniques
Observational research-research that examines the natural activities of people in an
organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do
Most straightforward way of finding out about OB
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