Hypothesis – a formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables.
Variables – measure that can take on two or more values
Types of Variables
Independent variable – is a predictor or cause of variation in a dependent variable
Dependent variable – is a variable that will vary as a result of changes in the independent
Moderating variable – a variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the
Mediating variable – is a variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable.
Measurement of Variables
Reliability – is a index of the consistency of a research subject’s responses. (e.g. if we ask someone
several questions about how his pay is, he should respond roughly the same way to each question)
Validity – is an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is suppose to measure.
(e.g. a good measure of perceived pay fairness should not be influenced by employees feelings of
fairness about other workplace factors like supervisision)
Convergent validity – when there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same
variable. (e.g. a measure of job satisfaction should be highly correlated to other measures of job
Discriminant validity – when there is a weak relationship between measures of different
variables. (e.g. a measure of job satisfaction should not be strongly related to measures of job
•Observational research-research that examines the natural activities of people in an
organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do
•Most straightforward way of finding out about OB