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MGHB02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Relations Movement, Positive Psychological Capital

Course Code
Phani Radhakrishnan
Study Guide

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The Basic of Organizational Behaviour Research
Hypothesis: a formal statement of the expected relationship between two variable
Variables: measures that can take on two or more values
Types of Variables
Independent variable: the variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a
dependent variable
Dependent variables: the variable that is expected to vary as a result of changes to the
independent variable
Moderating variable: a variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an
independent and dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the
moderating variables
Mediating variable: a variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable
Measurement of Variables
Reliability: an index of the consistency of a research subject's responses
Validity: an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to
Convergent validity: when there is a strong relationship between different measures of
the same variable
Discriminant validity: when there is a weak relationship between measures of different
Observational Techniques
Observational research: research that examines the natural activities of people in an
organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do.
o Formal observation described by key words systematic and objective
The outcomes of observational research are summarized in a narrative form- case study
Participant Observation
Participant observation: observational research in which the researcher becomes a
functioning member of the organizational unit being studied.
Direct Observation
Direct observation: observational research in which the researcher observes
organizational behavior without taking part in the studied activity.
Correlational Techniques
Correlational research: research that attempts to measure variables precisely and
examine relationships among these variables without introducing change into the research
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o Surveys: the use of questionnaires to gather data from participants, who answer
questions on the relevant variables
o Interview: a technique in which the researcher asks respondents a series of
questions to gather data on the variables of interest
o Existing data: data that are obtained from organizational records, such as
productivity, absence, and demographic information.
Correlation and Causation
Correlation does not necessarily apply causation but we interpret it in a way that the two
factors are related in one way or another
Experimental Research
Experimental research: research that changes or manipulates a variable under
controlled conditions and examines the consequences of this manipulation for some other
Control group: a group of research participants who have not been exposed to the
experimental treatment
Internal validity: the extent to which a researcher has confidence that changes in a
dependent variable are due to the independent variable
A Continuum of Research Techniques
Rich, broad based and loosely controlled  Specific, precious and rigorous
o Observation, correlation, and experiment
Combining Research Techniques
Study combined correlational and observational methods
The study illustrates how two research techniques can complement each other
Issues and Concerns in Organizational Behaviour Research
External validity: the extent to which the results of a study generalize to other samples
and settings
Random sampling: the research participants are randomly chosen from the population of
Random assignment: randomly assigning participants to the experimental and control
conditions of an experiment
Quasi-experimental design: a research technique in which the participants are not
randomly assigned to the experimental and control conditions
Hawthorne Effect
Hawthorne effect: favorable response by participants in an organizational experiment
that is the result of a factor other than the independent variable that is formally being
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CHAPTER 1: Introduction Behaviour and Management
What are Organizations?
Our well- being and the communities depend on organizations earn to live
Are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Consists of social inventions, goal accomplishments and group efforts
Social Inventions
Characteristic- coordinate presence of people
Advance information technology and contracting out work helps organizations make and
sell products without owing very little
o Have very little physical capital
o People working make up for opportunities and challenges need to manage
them use them effectively
Goal Accomplishment
All organizations have goals be it a corporations or non- profit organization
o Goals may include; sales, winning a game, helping needy, etc.
Organizations have survival goal; how they can survive and adapt to changes on the field
Certain behaviour is necessary for survival and adaptation
o Join and remain
o Productivity, quality an services
o Continuously learn and upgrade
o Flexible and innovative provide for adaptation and change
Group Efforts
Depends on interaction and coordination of people to accomplish goals
Most work done in groups whether it is permanent, long term or short- term work
Informal grouping may occur to avoid people getting friendly with co-worker and
neglecting work
What is Organizational Behavior?
Refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations
Studies attitudes and behaviours of individuals and organizations
o Provides insight on how to effectively manage and change them
o Organizations structured more effectively and how external sources affected
o How satisfied people are with their job, commitments to work and its goals
Human Resource management: program, practices and systems to acquire, develop
and retain employees in organizations
o Learning organizational behaviour will help understand HR management
Organizational Behaviour is Interesting
OB includes examples of success as well as failure
Provides tools to see why bosses may act the way they do; reasons, thoughts, advice etc.
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