Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort (where social inventions means having people) Organizational behavior: the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. Human resources management: programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop, and retain employees in organizations. Why study organizational behavior: interesting, important, makes a difference. Goals of organizational behavior: predicting ob, explaining ob, managing ob. Management: the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. Evidence-based management: translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. Classical viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. Scientific management: frederick taylor"s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. Bureaucracy: max weber"s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence.