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MGHB02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Psychological Contract, Job Satisfaction, Hazing

Course Code
Xuefeng Liu
Study Guide

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Ch.8: Social Influence in Organizations
1) Information Dependence and Effect Dependence
o Information dependence: reliance on others for information about how to
think, feel and actvia the signals they send to us
o Social information processing theory: effects can be very strong, often
exerting much or more influence over others as objective reality; individual is
shaped by others
o Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards
and punishments. Group members desire the approval of the group.
2) The Social Influence Process and Conformity
o Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire
rewards or avoid punishment
When ppl comply to a social norm, they do not necessarily agree to the
o Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those
who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself
ID occurs when ppl indirectly believe in the social norm
o Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of
the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm
Ppl truly believe a social norm
3) Organizational Socialization
Stages: Anticipatory socialization, encounter, role management
- Newcomers need to learn about: task, role, group, organization (TRGO)
Socialization: the process by which people learn the attitudes,
knowledge, and behaviors that are necessary to function in a group or
organization -> newcomers to achieve a good fit
Person-job (PJ) fit: the match between an employee’s knowledge,
skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job
Person-organization (PO) fit: the match between an employee’s
personal values and the values of an organization
Organizational identification: the extent to which individuals define
themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent
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Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract
o Psychological Contract: beliefs held by employees concerning the reciprocal
obligations and promises between them and their employer
e.g. an employee may expect to receive bonus in return for hard work
o Psychological contract breach: employee perceptions that his or her
organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the
psychological contract
Breach occurs as a result of: recruiter promises, newcomer info. & perceptions,
org. changes
Methods of Organizational Socialization
1) Realistic Job Previews: the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the
positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants.
- Avoid honeymoon hangover effect
- Traditional procedure starts with high, unrealistic expectations and ends with
low job survival and dissatisfaction while realistic procedure leads to opposite
2) Employee orientation programs: programs designed to introduce new
employees to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization
o Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress (ROPES): an orientation
program that is designed to teach newcomers coping techniques to manage
workplace stressors
-> Orientation programs led to reduction in rate of turnover, more socialization
3) Socialization Tactics: the manner in which organizations structure the early
work experience of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one
role to another
6 types of socalization tactics:
Collective/Formal segrating
newcomers and providing formal
Individual/Informal not
distinguishing newcomers and
relying on on-the-job learning
Sequential/Fixed clear and fixed
sequence of steps/stages
Variable/Random Ambiguous or
changing sequence
Serial/Investiture affirming
identity of new hires rather than
denying/stripping them away
Disjunctive/Divestiture humble
new hires and strip away
preconceptions to learn norms of
(aka debasement/hazing)
-> Collective socialization: treating everybody same; uniform conformity (e.g.
Marine Corps boot camp)
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o Mentor: an experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a
junior person guidance and special attention, such as giving advice and creating
opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his or her career
Career Functions of Mentoring:
Exposure and visibility
Coaching and feedback
Proactive Socialization: the process through which newcomers play an active
role in their own socialization through the use of a number of proactive
socialization behaviors. (i.e. requesting feedback, seeking information,
networking, self-regulation.)
- Supervisors are the info. source most strongly related to +ve socialization
4) Organizational Culture What is Organizational Culture?
o Organizational culture: the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist
in an organization
o Culture represents a true “way of life” for organizational members, who often
take its influence for granted
o Because culture involves basic assumptions, values, and beliefs, it tends to be
fairly stable over time
o The content of a culture can involve matters that are internal to the organization
or external
o Culture can have a strong impact on both organizational performance and
member satisfaction
o Subcultures: smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational
culture that are based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental
The “Strong Culture” Concept
o Strong Culture: an organizational culture with intense and pervasive beliefs,
values, and assumptions
Assets of Strong Cultures
Liabilities of Strong Cultures
o Coordination
o Conflict Resolution
o Financial Success
o Resistance to Change
o Culture Clash
o Pathology
Psychosocial Functions of Mentoring:
Role modeling
Providing acceptance and confirmation
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