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MGHB02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Job Satisfaction, Contingency Theory, Motivation

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Phani Radhakrishnan
Study Guide

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Chapter Nine- Leadership
What is Leadership?
Leadership-the influence that particular individuals exert( ) on the goal achievement of others in an
organizational context
Effective leadership exerts influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity,
innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce
Leadership involves going beyond formal role requirements to influence others
Indiv. might emerge to occupy informal leadership roles since they have no formal authorityreply on being
well liked or perceived to have higher skills or influence
Are Leaders Born? Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits- indiv. characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality
Traits associated w/ leadership
emotional stability
motivation to lead
honesty and integrity
need for achievement
Big Five- agreeableness, extraversion and openness to experience are related to leadership
Most effective leaders have high levels of emotional intelligencealso related to job satisfaction
Limitation of the Trait Approach
It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces
the traits
Traits approach fails to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs
Traits are only preconditions for certain actions that a leader must take to be successpossessing appropriate
traits for leadership make it possible that certain actions will be taken to be successful, BUT traits alone is
not sufficient for successful leadership
Lessons from Emergent Leadership
Leadership is a form of influence; 1 way to influence is to TALK A LOT
Task leader- a leader who is concerned w. accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy and
dividing labour
Social-emotional leader- a leader who is concerned w. reducing tension, patching up disagreements, setting
arguments and maintaining morale
oInfluence is more subtle than task influence
Task and social-emotional leadership are two important functions that must occur in group
Group must be structured and organized to accomplish its task
Organizations almost never appoint two formal leaders to a work groupthus, appointed leader must juggle
the demands of the two distinctive role
Behaviour of Assigned Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration-extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for
oSeen as friendly, egalitarian, expresses appreciation and is protective of group welfare
oRelated to social-emotional function in emergent leadership
Initiating structure-degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
oClearly defines and organizes his/her role and the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures
and schedules the work to be done and assigns employees to particular tasks
oRelated to task function
Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Both consideration and structure positive to employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness
Consideration more strongly related to satisfaction, motivation and leader effectiveness
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Structure related to leader job performance and group performance
When employees under high degree of pressure due to deadlines, unclear task, external threat internal
structure increases satisfaction and performance
When task is intrinsically satisfying consideration and structure is reduced
When goals and methods of performance is clear, consideration used to promote employee satisfaction
When employee lack knowledge on how to perform job, consideration less important than initiating
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader reward behaviour-provides employees w/ compliments, tangible benefits made contingent on
oEmployees should perform at a high level and experience job satisfaction
oEmployees have a clear picture of what is expected of them
oUnderstand that positive outcomes occur if they achieve these expectations
Leader punishment behaviour- leaders’ use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active
withholding of rewards
Both are very effective
Contingent reward found to be positively related to employees’ perceptions (trust), attitudes (job satisfaction
and commitment) and behaviour (effort and performance)
Contingent punishment related to employee perceptions, attitudes and behaviour
Noncontingent punishment behaviour is negatively related
Relationship were much stronger when rewards and punishment were made contingent on employee
Key to effective rewards and punishment is that it be administered contingent on employee behaviour and
Situational Theories of Leadership
Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur
Effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Contingency Theory- association b/t leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how
favourable the situation is for exerting influence
oSome situations are more favourable for leadership than others
oDifferent situations require different orientations
Leadership Orientation
Measures leadership through Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC)-a current or past co-worker with whom a
leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task
unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Friendly
unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 pleasant
Leader who describes the LPC relatively favourable (high score) considered as relationship oriented
oDespite the fact that LPC was difficult to work w/, still has positive qualities
Leader who describe LPC unfavourable considered task oriented
oThink that low-task competence equals bad personality
Fiedler argues that LC reveals a personality trait that reflects the leader’s motivational striation
High LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relations, while low LPC are motivated to
accomplish the task
LPC not a measure of consideration or initiation which are observed behaviours
oLPC are attitudes of leader towards work relationship
Situational Favourableness
The contingency part of contingency theory-specifics when a particular LPC orientation should contribute
most to group effectiveness
Favourable leadership situation exists when leader has a high degree of control and when the results of this
control is very predictable
Factors that affect situational favourableness
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